In a Graafian follicle (mature follicle), the __________ is greatly enlarged; __________ & __________ appears.
Antrum; cumulus oophorus & corona radiata
__________ before ovulation the Tertiary follicle transforms into a mature follicle, or __________.
36 hours; Graafian follicle
The __________are what is ovulated on day 14 of the menstrual cycle.
Graafian follicle + secondary oocyte arrested in Metaphase II
Puberty to Menopause Ovary
Progression from Primordial ---> Graafian ~ 9 Months
In Puberty ---> Menopause, an __________ surge is going to occur, followed by _____ and _____ surges around __________ of the menstrual cycle.
estrogen; LH and FSH; Day 12
In the ____________ stage, an estrogen surge is going to occur, followed by LH and FSH surges around day 12 of the menstrual cycle.
Puberty ---> Menopause
The estrogen, LH and FSH surges around day 12 of the menstrual cycle trigger:
- One primary oocyte within a tertiary follicle is going to complete Meiosis I (36 hours before ovulation)
- The oocyte will begin Meiosis II, thus becoming a secondary oocyte, but stop at Metaphase II. The follicle will become Graafian.
- Primary oocyte (diploid) will mature into a secondary oocyte & 1st polar body.
__________ is what will be ovulated on day 14 of the menstrual cycle.
Secondary oocyte arrested in Metaphase II in the mature Graafian follicle
A secondary oocyte arrested in Metaphase II in the mature Graafian follicle is what will be ovulated on ___________.
Day 14 of the menstrual cycle
The follicle will rupture out of the ovary and be drawn into the waiting _____________.
Fimbriae (cilia lined) of the uterine tube (oviduct/Fallopian tube)
Where the follicle ruptured out of the ovary, that space in the ovary is going to ___________.
Bleed and then clot
Lipids will accumulate and it will form the __________.
Corpus luteum or yellow body
Granulosa & Theca cells of the ruptured follicle are transformed into __________.
Luteal cells (will produce progesterone & estrogen)
Progesterone secreted by the corpus luteum will ________________.
Maintain and grow the endometrial lining of the uterus
If fertilization does NOT occur:
- The secondary oocyte + follicle will degenerate + be reabsorbed by uterine tube.
- The Corpus luteum will degrade into the Corpus albicans (white body) and shrivel up and form a scar on the ovary.
If fertilization DOES occur:
The sperm that has undergone capacitation will penetrate the female gamete in the upper 1/3 of the uterine tube
Sperm penetration will trigger:
- The secondary oocyte to complete Meiosis II, thus forming the ovum and 2nd polar body
(Secondary oocyte ---> ovum & 2nd polar body)
Will trigger the secondary oocyte to complete Meiosis II, thus forming the ovum and forming 2nd polar body:
The __________ is formed when pronucli of male and pronucli of the female fuse together.
Once the zygote is implanted into the endometrium of the uterus:
The zygote will secrete the hormone hCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin)
Once the zygote is implanted into the __________ of the uterus, the zygote will secrete __________.
Endometrium;hCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin)
__________ will keep the __________ hormonally active (estrogen & progesterone) and the __________ will remain in place to support the embryo with its hormones for ~ 3 months as the __________ forms.
hCG; Corpus luteum; placenta
In this phase the uterus is prepared for implantation of a fertilized egg
Luteal Phase (period of corpus luteum activity)
Note: This coordinates with the secretory phase of the uterus. The endometrium is built up to be thick and spongy, and is maintained awaiting implantation. When this does not happen the breakdown begins.
The __________ cells secrete progesterone and estrogen
__________ is required to maintain pregnancy & inhibits the release of _____ and _____.
Progesterone; FSH; LH
If fertilization and implantation OCCURS, the __________ is retained.
If implantation DOES NOT occur, the __________ degenerates. And, __________ and __________ levels drop.
Corpus Luteum; progesterone and estrogen
Use the diagram of the female anatomy below. This part of the female anatomy contains cilia that will assist the sperm in reaching the egg and is where sperm capacitation and fertilization also occur.
Use the diagram of the female anatomy below. Secondary follicles can be found here.
Implantation of the embryo occurs
Use the diagram of the female anatomy below. Where is the endometrium located?
Which follicle will contain a 10 oocyte arrested in Prophase I?
A) Choices A and B
Use the diagram of the female anatomy below. What structure will secrete progesterone?
Which follicle type is antral?
When does the zona pellucida first form?
Which of the following are haploid (n)?
F) Both C and D
What type of follicle?
What is the signal for the secondary oocyte to complete meiosis II?
C) sperm penetration of the gamete
What type of oocyte is contained in the follicle depicted in this picture?
1° oocyte arrested in Prophase I
What is the name of the structure numbered 3 in this diagram?
What happens if fertilization does not occur?
A) corpus luteum degrades into the corpus albicans or white body
B) the uterine tube reabsorbs the
C) the female gamete comes out in the menstrual cycle
D) a cyst forms and fills with lipids
E) meiosis II completes and a second polar body is formed
F) Choices A and B
G) Choices A and C
H) Choices A and D
I) Choices B and E
F) Choices A and B
In the female reproductive system, a mature follicle or Graafian follicle contains
C) A secondary (2ᵒ) oocyte arrested in Metaphase I of meiosis with 1 polar body
A zygote is formed when the
E) Female and male pronucli fuse
Chapter 2 The Female Reproductive System
Chapters 2 The Female Reproduction System and the Ovary