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  1. Libretto or Book
    The story - spoken dialogue - written by the Librettist
  2. Score
    The music or and lyrics
  3. Principal
    The main character
  4. Tony Award
    Antoinette Perry Award for Excellence in Theatre
  5. Canon
    Sanctioned and established body or collection of related works
  6. 11 o'clock
    A number that comes near the end of a show that is a turning point.
  7. Bubble Theory/Principal
    The way a song bubbles out of emotion
  8. Legit
    Classical style musical theatre singing
  9. Belt
    Declamatory singing more in line with speaking - prevalent in popular music today.
  10. Antecedents
    • Greek, Roman, Asian, Shakespeare 
    • Aria - Musical Monologue 
    • Recitative - Musical Dialogue
  11. Richard Wagner
    German Composer - wrote the book and music for his operas
  12. Gesamtkunstwerk
    "Total work of art"
  13. Ballad Opera
    • A “lowbrow” reaction to the “highbrow” classic opera or “opera seria"
    • Parodied and provided social and political commentary
  14. Operetta/Light Opera
    • Grew out of the popularity of comic opera
    • Dialogue instead of recitative
  15. Gilbert and Sullivan
    • British Light Opera duo
    • Wrote 13 Full length light operas including The Pirates of Penzance, H.M.S. Pinnafore, and The Mikado
    • Their productions were so popular in America that despite copyright laws there were many bootleg productions.
    • Political and social satire - often they would upend the class system
    • Lyrics are sung quickly for comic effect -almost speak-singing.
  16. Victor Herbert
    • Father of American Operetta
    • Composed over 40 Operettas
    • Combined European Forms with American Sensibilities.
  17. Melodrama
    • Means “music drama” - music underscores the action dramatically
    • Music was composed to support the script of each play.
  18. Vaudeville
    • 1860s Variety acts playing in the bowery a disreputable part of NYC
    • Tony Pastor- a producer wanted to create a version of the variety acts that would be family friendly
  19. Florenz Ziegfeld
    • Producer, larger than life resourceful & innovative        
    • Credited with the popularization of the reeve  Brought Vaudeville style shows to the legitimate stage
  20. Showboat
    • Based on Edna Ferber’s 1926 novel
    • Many historians mark the beginning of the Golden Age of the American musical
    • Composer- Jerome Kern
    • Lyricist- Oscar Hammerstein II
  21. Leimotif
    • Where a character has its own musical theme (IE:Darth Vader)
    • Musical phrase associated with a character
  22. Jerome Kern
    • Known as the “Father of American Musical Theatre” (not musical comedy)
    • Brought together operetta and musical comedy
    • Integration of song and story
    • Worked as a rehearsal pianist
    • Wrote his first full score in 1912 – The Red Petticoat
  23. Oscar Hammerstein II
    • Started writing for shows at Columbia University. He worked with Lorenz Hart and Richard Rodgers
    • Dropped out of law school to pursue career in theater 
    • His first two shows were flops – so he partnered with Otto Harbach an experience librettist
  24. Summertime
    • 1935
    • All black cast
    • "Doin' Time"
  25. George and Ira Gershwin
    • Ira - Lyrics
    • George - Music        
    • Rhapsody in Blue – 1924
    • 1918 – Wrote the first song together, The Real American Folk Song
  26. Of Thee I Sing
    • Political Satire – mocks the process of electing a president
    • Reflected cynicism of the time
  27. Cradle Will Rock
    • Part of the Federal Theatre Project (WPA)
    • Shut down before it opened
  28. Pogroms
    Removing Jews from their homes by using force
  29. Irving Berlin
    • Lived for 101 years
    • 899 published songs, 451 hits, 282 top 10, 35 #1
    • "He is American Music"
    • Given special treatment in the army to give shows to troops
    • Alexander’s Ragtime Band
  30. As Thousands Cheer – 1933
    • Moss Hart was the librettist  
    • A revue based on newspaper headlines
    • Gave us “Heat Wave” “Easter Bonnet
    • Ethel Waters – ”Suppertime
  31. Ethel Merman
    Original Broadway belter
  32. Annie get your Gun
    • Music and Lyrics : Irving Berlin
    • Book: Dorothy Fields and Herbert Fields
    • Ran for 1147 performances
    • Based on life of Annie Oakley
  33. Cole Porter
    • Gay but married to a woman for over 30 years
    • Known as a playboy, and loved being in a spotlight
    • His first Broadway show flopped – 1916
    • "Let's do it"
  34. Kiss me Kate
    • Based on Taming of the Shrew by Shakespeare 
    • Actions off stage mirrors on stage
    • Considered Porter's greatest achievement
  35. Pal Joey
    • 1940s
    • Seedy characters and setting
    • First anti-hero leading man
  36. George Balanchine
    • Famous Russian ballet dancer and choreographer
    • Found American School of Ballet
    • First Broadway show: On Your Toes – Rodgers and Hart
    • Used dance to further the plot
    • Babes in arms in 1937 was first dream ballet
  37. Finian’s Rainbow – 1947
    • Yip Harburg – Book and Lyrics
    • Burton Lane - Music
    • Mixed Irish folklore with American social issues
  38. On The Town – 1944
    • Leonard Bernstein - Composer
    • Betty Comden and Adolph Green – Book and Lyrics
    • Jerome Robbins – Choreography
    • George Abbott - Director
    • A musical about the WWII
  39. Richard Rogers and Oscar Hammerstein II
    • First work was Oklahoma!
    • Worked together on Varsity shows at Columbia University
    • Hammerstein often wrote the lyrics and Rogers would compose to match
  40. Oklahoma!
    • Opened March 31, 1943
    • Ran for 2,212 performances
    • Hart turned down the project but suggested Hammerstein
    • Agnes De Mille was the choreographer
  41. Ed Sullivan Show
    • Many Broadway starts appeared and performed
    • Brought Broadway into homes across America
  42. South Pacific – 1949
    • Socially Conscious – A show with a message
    • Based on Tales of the South Pacific by James Michener
    • Music & Lyrics - Rodgers and Hammerstein
    • Libretto - Hammerstein and Josh Logan
    • Director - Josh Logan
  43. Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Lowe
    • Wrote musicals that were about love and traditional values
    • Shows were perfect for postwar America
    • Often celebrations of an idealized past while still mirroring values and ideals of midcentury America
    • Pushed integration to the next level
    • Did "My Fair Lady"
  44. George Abbott 1887-1995
    • Playwright, Director, Producer
    • Worked steadily on Broadway for 80years
    • Had the "Midas Touch" his help always worked
  45. My Fair Lady
    • Film - 1964
    • Starred Rex Harrison and Aubrey Hepburn
    • Hepburn’s singing was dubbed by Marni Nixon
  46. West Side Story
    • Music - Leonard Bernstein
    • Lyrics - Stephen Sondheim 
    • Books - Arthur Laurents
    • Choreo/Direction - Jerome Robbins
    • Updated, Musical version of Romeo and Juliet
    • Originally East Side Story, had to abandoned 1st story and reworked it 6 years later
  47. Leonard Bernstein
    • Conductor of the NY Philharmonic
    • Melody and Rhythm
    • Technical Mastery
    • Unity of design
    • Leitmotif
    • symphonic
  48. Jerome Robbins
    • Jewish-American, originally Jerome Wilson Rabiowitz
    • Ballet, Modern, Spanish, Folk Dance
    • American Ballet Theatre and Broadway
    • Electric dance styles into a unified whole
    • Strong use of ballet
  49. Fidler on the Roof
    • Known as the end of the Golden Age
    • Done by Bock and Harnick
Card Set
For my THTR class
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