Psych 208 exam 1

  1. What are the domains of development and how do they interact?
    • 1. physical
    • 2. cognitive
    • 3. social-emotional
    • all domains affect each other
  2. Prenatal
    • conception to birth
    • development in general
    • prenatal nutrition
  3. Infancy/toddlerhood
    • birth-2 years
    • increased memory
    • gross motor skills
    • increased mobility
  4. Early childhood
    • 2-6 years
    • potty training
    • basic self care
    • begin to learn morals
  5. Middle childhood
    • 6-10 years
    • moral reasoning
    • basic academic skills
    • beginning of abstract thinking
  6. Adolescence
    • 10-18 years
    • puberty
    • explore sexual interests
    • more capacity to think/reason
  7. Emerging Adulthood
    • 18-25 years
    • advancement of sexual maturity
    • commitment/intimacy
    • find true identity
  8. Continuous development
    gradual changes over time
  9. Discontinuous development
    stage to development; certain period of time when something is/is not going to happen
  10. Nature vs. Nurture
    • Nature- biological aspect, how you're born
    • Nurture- how you're raised and what impact your parents have on you
  11. Medieval Thought
    Children were vulnerable beings, and childhood was a developmental period. Children were in a separate period of of life from adults- property, non human. Once the age of seven, they were expected to work.
  12. Reformation
    Children were born evil and had to be civilized. They believed in the use of harsh discipline strategies. Adults trained children to use reason in determining right and wrong.
  13. Enlightenment
    • John Locke- viewed child as "tabula rasa," blank slate. Children begin with nothing and experiences shapes character. He believed in gradual development through interactions with the environment and of experience with people.
    • Jean-Jaques Rousseau- children born as good-endowed at birth with sense of right and wrong and built in morals. This can be molded by adult training or interactions. He believed in stages of growth due to maturation.
  14. 20th centuary
    Child labor and compulsory education laws were passed
  15. Early Leaders of Child Development
    • Charles Darwin- one of the first observers to keep a log of observations on his son.
    • G. Stanley Hall- Founded Child Development as an academic discipline; labeled adolescence.
  16. The Normative Period
    Thought of development as a genetically predetermined process. Used Normative Approach- measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals and computed to represent typical development.
  17. Behavorism
    an approach to learning that regards directly observable events- stimuli and responses- as the appropriate focus of behavior and thus learning
  18. Classical Conditioning
    Pavlov and Watson- learn to associate a neutral stimulus with another stimulus that produces a reflexive result
  19. Operant Conditioning
    Skinner- a frequency of behavior such as learning can be increased by a variety of rewards and decreased by punishment
  20. Reinforcement
    • Increase a behavior
    • Positive- increase the frequency of the behavior when applied
    • Negative- increase the frequency of the behavior when removed
  21. Punishment
    decrease and possibly eliminate behavior
  22. Erogenous Zone
    a single body part particularly sensitive to sexually erotic stimulation
  23. Freud's Psychological Theory
    how parents manage their child's sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years of their life is crucial  for healthy personality development
  24. Id
    provides our basic biological need for sexual gratification
  25. Ego
    the conscious rational part of personality, redirects inappropriate impulses, responsible for handling conflicts between Id and superego
  26. Superego
    Develops between 3-6; conscious develops through interactions with caregivers, who insist children conform to the values of society
  27. Oral
    • Freud
    • Age- birth to one or one and a half
    • Erogenous Zone- Mouth
    • Activities- biting, sucking, nursing
    • Potential Fixations- (conflict- weaning- sensory/ cared for)
    • Not enough- pessimism, sarcasm, envious, suspicious
    • Too much- very optimistic, gullible, admiration for others
  28. Anal
    • Freud
    • Age- one to three
    • Erogenous Zone- anus
    • Activities- toilet training
    • Potential Fixations- (conflict- toilet training- sensory vs. societal pressure) 
    • Not enough- Sloppy, messy, disorganized, defiant
    • Too much- neat, precise, orderly, stingy
  29. Phallic
    • Freud
    • Age- three to six
    • Erogenous Zone- genitals
    • Activities- tough themselves, play doctor
    • Potential Fixations- (Oedipus/Electra complex)
    • Stuck- reckless, self assumed, afraid of close relationships
    • Resolved- healthy relationships, healthy sense of who they are
  30. Latency
    • Freud
    • Age- six to eleven
    • Erogenous Zone- none- body in general- focus on other unresolved issues
    • Activities- school, athletics, not much interest in sex, same sex relationships
    • Potential Fixations- why out conflicts from before
  31. Genital
    • Freud
    • Age- puberty to adolescence 
    • Erogenous Zone- genitals
    • Activities- sexual experimentation, masturbation- if positively resolved then focuses on relationships with the opposite sex
    • Potential Fixations- of unresolved issues from phallic stage, then development will be troubled with same and opposite sex relationships
  32. Oedipus Complex
    boys want mother sexually, but father stands in the way. Feels aggression towards father. If disciplined harshly concerning masturbation, then anxiety increases. Eventually societal pressures make boy accept and be becomes like his father to vicariously love his mother. Over time, the superego takes it away.
  33. Electra Complex
    girl lacks a penis and wants one, blames mother. When can't have one- affection and envy develops for father- called penis envy. Conflict never is truly resolved and eventually evaporates
  34. Erickson believed that humans went through a series of stages at which a conflict arose between
    your perception of your level of a skill vs your perception of what you think society expects
  35. Trust vs. Mistrust
    • Erickson
    • Age- birth to one
    • Issue- trust
    • Positive- safety/dependability
    • Negative- fear/suspicion
  36. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
    • Erickson
    • Age- two to three
    • Issue- independence
    • Positive- can direct one's behavior
    • Negative- feelings of self-doubt
  37. Industry vs. Inferiority
    • Erickson
    • Age-six to eleven (elementary to middle school)
    • Issue- are you successful? (mainly with academics)
    • Positive- someone who is confident and enjoys work, risk taker with work
    • Negative- feels inferior and avoids academic tasks
  38. Identity vs. Role Confusion
    • Erickson
    • Age- twelve to eighteen
    • Issue- who are you? (role) What is the expected behavior for that role?
    • Positive- perception of self/identity
    • Negative- role confusion and no stability, insecure
  39. Intimacy vs. Isolation
    • Erickson
    • Age- young adulthood
    • Issue- deep-rooted intimate relationships
    • Positive- committed relationships
    • Negative- isolation
  40. Generativity vs. Stagnation
    • Erickson
    • Age- middle age
    • Issue- positive impact on children
    • Positive- positive effect on children
    • Negative- becomes self absorbed; negative towards others
  41. Integrity vs. Despair
    • Erickson
    • Age- old age, approaching death
    • Issue- acceptance of your life
    • Positive- totally satisfied, done everything you wanted to do
    • Negative- despair, not enough time left to do what they want
  42. Bandura's Social Learning Theory
    An approach that emphasizes the role of modeling or observational learning in the development of behavior and other things
  43. Assimilation
    fitting it into an existing schema
  44. Schema
    organized patterns of behavior or thought
  45. Accomidation
    changing an existing schema to incorporate the new experience
  46. Adaptation
    the process of creating a good fit or match between one's conception and reality (one's schemes) and real-life experinces
  47. Sensorimotor
    • Piaget
    • Age- birth to two years
    • Characteristics- develops knowledge primarily through sense and motor activities- object permanence- imitation
  48. Preoperational
    • Piaget
    • Age- two to seven
    • Characteristics- mastery of symbols, not able to conserve (certain things stay the same) and decenter (ability to think of more than one quality at a time), not capable of operations (logical thinking) and reverse actions (can't take on another's point of view)
  49. Concrete Operational
    • Piaget
    • Age- seven to eleven
    • Characteristics- can solve operations by by use of concrete things, not able to manipulate conditions mentally without experience, able to generalize by the end of this stage
  50. Formal operational
    • Piaget
    • age- eleven and older
    • Characteristics- abstract thinking, form hypotheses, solve problems systematically, engage in mental manipulations
  51. Information Processing Theory
    an understanding of how people acquire new information, how they store information and recall it from memory, and what they already know guides and determines what and how they will learn. Information is processed in steps- attending to a stimulus, recognizing it, transforming it into some type of mental representation, comparing it with information already stored in memory, assigning meaning to it, and acting on it in some fashion
  52. Urre Bronfenbrenner
    views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment, from immediate settings of family and school to broad cultural values and programs
  53. Vygotsky
    believed that social interaction with those on a higher level of thinking was the primary cause of cognitive development (opposite of Piaget)
  54. Zone of Proximal Development
    difference between what a child can do on his on and what can be accomplished with some assistance
  55. Scaffolding
    helping students answer difficult questions or solve problems by giving hints or asking leading questions
  56. According to Freud, humans develop conflicts which we place in the                  part of our mind. We may not realize the conflict but it affects our day to day behavior.                 and                       are ways that we can access these conflicts
    unconscious; dream analysis; psychoanalysis
  57. Freud suggested that parents walk a thin line between being too             and too              at each stage, thus causing a fixation of libido at that stage
    pushy; lenient
  58. Freud developed                   which involves going back into your past and uncovering your buried or unconscious thoughts
Card Set
Psych 208 exam 1
child development exam 1