In philosophy, we examine our religious, political, and moral beliefs in order to
ask whether we should continue to hold them
By philosophically examining our basic beliefs about reality and life, we
make them our own
The freedom of being able to decide for yourself what you will believe in by using your own reasoning ability is
Philosophy seeks to understand
what it means to be a human being, the fundamental nature of God and reality, the sources and limits of knowledge.
Plato's Myth of the Cave illustrates how
philosophy is difficult, philosophy is an activity, and the aim of philosophy is freedom.
The three traditional fields of philosophy are
epistemology, metaphysics, and ethics
_______ was Socrates' disciple.
Although not the first philosopher, this person is usually thougt of as the father of Western philosophy.
Our views about human nature affect
our relationship to other people, our relationship to the universe, and what we do with our lives.
Psychological egoism is the belief that
beings act only from self-interest
Plato believed the self consisted of
reason, spirit, and appetite
According to a rationalistic view like Plato's, the _____ part of the human being should rule over the _____.
In the Traditional Religious View, ________.
humans have both intellect and will, the level of intelligence is unimportant, life's ultimate purpose is love and service to God
According to Darwin, ________.
man is just a higher animal
The ______ view holds that the human self creates its own nature.
________ wrote: "Existence precedes essence."
The concept of "bad faith" is associated with ________.
Existentialism deals with concepts such as
freedom, responsibility, anguish
the critical study of the nature of reality
________ is the view that matter is the ultimate constituent of reality.
They embrace the scientific method, determinism, and are reductionistic.
The determinist view of reality holds that _______.
human are not free nor are they personally responsible for what they do
The libertarian view of reality holds that ______.
human actions are not causally determined by previous events and the laws of nature
_______ construes the self as part of the matter taht composes the universe, subject to deterministic laws.
For the _____, the self is whatever we choose to make it.
The compatibilist holds that _____.
Freedom simply means an absence of external restraints or confinements
The metaphysical dualist believes the mind and body are _____.
two different things
_______ is a supporter within existentialism.
Jean Paul Sartre
Epistemology is the
study or theory of knowledge
In the Parable of the Cave, Socrates says the prisoners are like
One possible danger of the rationalist view of human nature is that _____.
human beings who are less than fully rational may be considered and treated as sub-human.
For a metaphysical dualist, mind and body are
The argrument of Non-Identity Discernibles is an argument used in favor of
________ wrote: “Exitence precedes essence."
Sartre’s term “bad faith” refers to a person
who is in denial of his or her ulitmate freedom
In the free will debate, compatibilists claim
being free is to be without external obstacles
Laws of science, like Newton’s Law, have given ______ more evidence in its favor.
Critics of ________ argue that the theory ignores the real question: Are we utimately free or unfree.
What do the following theories think about human nature?·
Psychological egoism· Traditional Rationalist View· Traditional Religious View· The Darwinian View· The Existential View
Name one person who supports each view
Epistemology, Metaphysics, and Ethics are (respectively) the studies of what?
In the debate over free will, what do the following three theories believe?·
Determinism· Libertarianism· Compatiblism
In the debate over moral responsibility, what do the following three theories believe?·
Determinism· Libertarianism· Compatiblism
Materialism vs. Dualism·
What is the central point or focus (or definition) of each?· What are the different schools of thought included in each theory?· How do they feel about the mind and the body?· What arguments do they use to prove their point?· What arguments do they use to disprove their opponent’s view?
Based on chapters 1-3 of "Philosophy: a Text with Readings" by Velasquez