Unit 2

  1. Inflammation
    • response of living tissue to injury
    • its a defense reaction to protect the host
  2. What is the inflammation process?
    begins with injury and ends with healing
  3. What are the cardinal signs of inflammation?
    • Redness
    • pain
    • edema
    • heat
    • loss of movement
  4. What variables influence the extent of the inflammation process?
    • 1.nutrition 
    • 2.age
    • 3.local and tissue factors- such as blood supply and foreign bodies in the wound
  5. Acute inflammation
    limited red areas and painful selling 

    A. short duration: 2 days 

    • B. presence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes/neutrophils
    • Ex: insect bites, cuts, mild burns
  6. Chronic inflammation
    • Last days or weeks 
    • A. Spreads to adjacent tissues 

    B. presence of lymphocytes and monocytes
  7. Ganulomatous
    • Sub-category of chronic
    • A. broader range of cells present 

    • B. participates in autophage
    • EX: TB
  8. What are some simple inflammations?
    • A. splinter: breach primary line of defense 
    • B. Bacteria enters- produces toxins or enzymes
    • C. Bacteria increases, spreading the injury 
    • D. Capillaries become permeable to large and small molecules,
    • WBC's - this increases redness in the area 
    • permeability allows for fluid accumulation
  9. What are two initial WBC response
    • A. pavementing: injury to capillary lining rendering them sticky 
    • WBC's attach there 

    • B. Chemotaxis: direct migration of inflammatory cells to the area 
    • Especially Leukocytes- phagocitic ability
  10. What are the primary line of defense mechanisms of the body?
    External, Epithelial, and Mucosal barriers
    • 1. Skin: prevents us from drying out and from bacteria having a free lunch 
    • Tears: adaptation that is antibacterial
    • 2. Respiratory: mucous acts like a trap 
    • A. Cilia sweeps away debris
    • B. interference by: cigars, alcohol, chronic irritation
    • C. Viruses destroy effectiveness
    • 3. Oral cavity and digestive tract
    • A. mucous
    • B. peristalsis- prevents stasis
  11. Humor
    secretion of substances which causes an increase in permeability of blood vessels, usually the capillary bed
  12. Types of Humors
    • Histamine
    • Serotonin
    • Kallikreins
    • prostaglandins
    • Complement
    • Fibrin
  13. Histamine
    • Liberated from mast cells 
    • A. Connective tissue cells in the area
    • 1. contain histamine and heparin 

    • B. Cause capillary dilation 
    • 1. decrease blood pressure
    • 2. Constriction of smooth muscle in bronchi and uterus
  14. Seratonin
    Produced in platelets, cells of brain, intestine 

    A. Powerful permeability factor- in capillaries

    B. Produces thermogenic response- fever 

    • 80-90% produced in the brain 
    • Neurotransmitter 
    • Mood elevator
  15. Kallikreins
    Family of enzymes

    A. Found in urine and plasma, body tissue 

    B. Large molecule- assist in blood pressure maintenance

    C. Increases capillary permeability 

    D. Provokes pain

    E. Present at inflammatory sites 

  16. Prostaglandins
    Enzymaticly derived in tissue from polyunsaturated fatty acids

    A. Not stored- rapidly synthesized and used

    B. Damage to cell membranes stimulates production
  17. What is the significance of prostaglandins?
    • Parturition and delivery 
    • Coagulation
    • Inflammation
    • Maintenance of blood pressure 
    • 1. Cause of changes in vasomotor tone -constricting
  18. Complement
    • Over 30 complex, enzymatic serum proteins 
    • Coat the antigen-antibody complex and break it apart 

    • A. Serum component accompanying antigen-antibody response 
    • 1. affect lysis
  19. Fibrin
    • Starts as fibrinogen, a protein from the liver 
    • Clots- a barrier to block infection 

    • As fibrinogen, its normally inactive
    • A. Contributes to maintaining intravascular osmotic pressure

    As capillary permeability increases, fibrinogen escapes from lumen of vessels and is converted to fibrin

    • B. WBC's attach at that location 
    • C. Creates barriers- clots
    • D. Contains spread of infection
  20. Hemopoietic System - WBC's
    3 types of Myelocytes- Large cells with granules and lobulated nucleus

    • 1. Eosinophils
    • 2. Basophils
    • 3. Neutrophils
  21. Eosinophils
    1-3% of WBC's

    • A. Stain red
    • B. increase with allergy
    • C. Increase with parasitic infection
  22. Basophils 
    1% or less of WBC's

    • A. stain blue 
    • B. Decrease in severe allergy
  23. Neutrophils
    Polymorphonuclear leukocyte with 3-5 lobes of nucleus 

    A. Stain dark blue

    B. Engage in phagocytosis and proteolyisis 

    C. 4-6 day life span 

    D. Enter blood stream from marrow at a rate of 5000 - 6000/mm³

    E. If number ↓ below 1000/mm³ Pt. has risk of infection 

    F. If number ↓ below 100/mm³ 70% will develop infection with a mortality rate of 70%

    Absence of Neutrophils for 3 hours increases infectivity of tissue by 100,000x
  24. Neutrophil problems?
    A. Abnormal neutrophils result in prolonged and multiple infections 

    B. Lazy Leukocytes- Non-responsive

    C. Giant granules- interfere with function 

    D. Failure to produce digestive enzymes
Card Set
Unit 2
inflammation and repair