patho test 2

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  1. Pathogen
    A disease-producing microbe
  2. Pathogenicity
    Potential capacity of certain species of microbes or viruses to cause a disease
  3. Virulence
    the potency of the pathogen, measure by the ratio of the number of cases of disease in a population compared with the number of people exposed to the pathogen.
  4. Infectivity
    • defined as the number of exposures needed to cause infection.
    • A more infective pathogen is one that takes a single exposure to enter the host, take hold, multiply and cause disease
  5. Toxigenicity
    the ability to produce toxins to damage the host's cells and tissues
  6. Antigenicity
    • the capacity of an antigen to bind specifically with a group of certain products that have adaptive immunity
    • Pathogens with low antigenicity can evade the hosts defenses, as they are not recognized as "foreign" by the host
  7. Antigenic variability
    the ability to alter the pathogen's antigens to avoid recognition by the host and memory cells. AKA mutations
  8. Coinfection
    the simultaneous infection of a host by multiple pathogen species
  9. Superinfection
    the process by which a cell that has previously been infected by one virus gets co-infected with a different strain of the virus, or another virus, at a later point in time
  10. Obligate parasite
    a parasitic organism that cannot complete its life cycle without exploiting a suitable host
  11. Facultative parasite
    an organism that may resort to parasitic activity, but does not absolutely rely on any host for completion of its life cycle
  12. Bacteria
    Single-celled prokaryote that can exist either as independent organisms or as parasites
  13. Aerobic
    an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment
  14. Anaerobic
    any organism that does not require oxygen for growth
  15. Cocci
    any bacterium that has a spherical shape
  16. Bacilli
    any rod-shaped bacterium
  17. Spirochetes
    distinctive diderm (double-membrane) bacteria, most of which have long, helically coiled (spiral-shaped) cells
  18. Endotoxin
    large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, and elicit strong immune responses in animals
  19. Exotoxin
    a toxin secreted by bacteria. An exotoxin can cause damage to the host by destroying cells or disrupting normal cellular metabolism
  20. Yeasts
    eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, are unicellular, although some species with yeast forms may become multicellular through the formation of strings of connected budding cells known as pseudohyphae, or false hyphae, as seen in most molds
  21. Molds
    a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae
  22. Pseudohyphae
    distinguished from true hyphae by their method of growth, relative frailty and lack of cytoplasmic connection between the cells
  23. Hyphae
    a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus. In most fungi, hyphae are the main mode of vegetative growth, and are collectively called a mycelium
  24. Mycoses
    a fungal infection of animals, including humans
  25. Opportunistic pathogens
    an infection caused opportunistic pathogens—those that take advantage of certain situations—such as bacterial, viral, fungal or protozoan infections that usually do not cause disease in a healthy host, one with a healthy immune system
  26. Vector
    an organism, often an invertebrate arthropod, that transmits a pathogen from reservoir to host
  27. Reservoir
    An area where pathogens can grow and multiply
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patho test 2
patho test 2 material
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