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  1. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
    have difficulty with dysphagia and aspiration; other early symptoms include fatigue with while talking, tongue atrophy, weakness of hands and arms

    ALS does not cause changes to the mental state

    retains control bowel and bladder.      
  2. primary adrenocortical insufficiency
    expect sodium and glucose to be decreased and potassium increased            

    normal sodium 135–145 mEq/L, normal glucose 60–110 mg/dL, normal potassium 3.5–5.0 mEq/L
  3. SLE
    proteinuria and hyperlipidemia are common with systemic lupus erythematous

    Ask your physician to order a lipid profile and a urinalysis with the yearly examination
  4. Impetigo
    most often begins as a red sore near the nose or mouth which soon breaks, leaking pus or fluid, and forms a honey-colored scab, followed by a red mark which heals without leaving a scar

    highly contagious; see doctor immediately; keep towels separate will prevent spreading the infection to the rest of the family.

    infected area should be kept clean and dry. A 1:20 Burow solution on compresses can be used to soften and remove undermined skin, crusts, and debris. Calamine lotion, however, should not be applied to the affected area.

    spread through direct contact with the lesions. Cleanliness and handwashing are important to prevent spreading of the bacteria. Washing linens in hot water and soaking combs in boiling water, however, are not necessary.

    Although vancomycin is an antibacterial agent, it is not the drug of choice for the treatment of impetigo. Penicillin is the antibacterial agent of choice for the treatment of severe or extensive impetigo.
  5. mononucleosis
    complaining of fatigue, a sore throat, and flu-like symptoms for the previous 2 weeks. Physical exam reveals enlarged lymph nodes and temperature of 100.3°F (37.9°C)

    spread by direct contact (sneezing not an issue)

    avoid contact with cups and silverware for about 3 months
  6. myocardial infarction
    most common complication following a MI is dysrhythmia, with ventricular types being the most serious
  7. colostomy
    all activities that the client participated in before the colostomy may be resumed after appropriate healing of the stoma or incisions
  8. screening for prostate cancer
    prostate cancer is found most commonly in men age 50 and over

    African Americans are affected more than other ethnic groups

    occupation and environment are other definite risk factors, particularly exposure to carcinogens found in urban areas (higher incidence of prostate cancer) and in occupations such as fertilizer, rubber, and textile industries, as well as in places with heavy metals such as cadmium; cadmium used in low-friction, fatigue-resistant alloys, in nickel-cadmium batteries, and in rustproof electroplating
  9. pernicious anemia
    needs supplementation with vitamin B12
  10. chronic alcoholism
    needs supplementation with all B vitamins, especially thiamine (vitamin B1); thiamine deficiency is the primary cause of alcohol-related changes such as Wernicke’s encephalopathy and Korsakoff’s syndrome
  11. tuberculosis
    patient is likely to be taking isoniazid (INH); INH is a mainstay in prevention and treatment of tuberculosis, used in combination with other antitubercular drugs if the disease is active; vitamin B6 is given to prevent the peripheral neuropathy, dizziness, and ataxias that can occur with this drug
  12. Wernicke’s syndrome
    form of dementia that results from thiamine deficiency

    Diplopia - seen in
  13. Korsakoff’s psychosis
  14. ectopic pregnancy
    unilateral, dull abdominal pain - needs to be evaluated for
  15. cystic fibrosis
    "gunky tube disease"

    sweat test is a positive finding for cystic fibrosis
  16. ulcerative colitis
    inflammation and ulceration of the colon and rectum

    requires high-calorie, high-protein, low-residue diet;
  17. shingles
    From dormant chickpox infection

    staff with localized lesions can care for non–high-risk clients

    can’t care for immunosuppressed clients until lesions have crusted
  18. gout
    characterized by recurrent attacks of acute inflammatory arthritis—a red, tender, hot, swollen joint. The metatarsal-phalangeal joint at the base of the big toe is the most commonly affected (approximately 50% of cases). However, it may also present as tophi, kidney stones, or urate nephropathy. It is caused by elevated levels of uric acid in the blood. The uric acid crystallizes, and the crystals deposit in joints, tendons, and surrounding tissues.

    gout is characterized by overproduction or underexcretion of uric acid; high purine foods increase incidence of gout; foods include organ meats, meat soups, gravy, anchovies, sardines, fish, seafood, asparagus, spinach, peas, dried legumes, wild game
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NCLEX Diseases
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