Other than water 97% hemoglobin (4 oxygen carrying polypeptides). No mitochondria or nucleus
live 100-120 days (longer than most blood cells)
~4800-11,000/mm3. Only complete cells in formed elements.
Can exit bloodstream and are part of immune system
Granulocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, Basophils
agranulocytes: Lymphocytes and monocytes
Abundance order: Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
60% of all White BC
Nucleus has 2-6 lobes
consume and destroy bacteria.
Their granulocytes produce enzyme that destroys bacterial cell walls.
1-4% of Leukocytes
"eosin-loving"- eosin is the acidic dye used for dying blood
end allergic reactions by phagocytysing allergens and degrading histamine and other inflammatory responses
0.5% of WBC
"base-loving" dyed by the basic dye used to dying blood
control later inflammatory responses, secrete histamine and other molecules
similar to mast cell in connective tissue that mediate beginning stage of inflammation
20-45% of WBC and most important
large spherical nucleus
act in connective tissue against specific foreign molecules (antigens) and include B and T cells
4-8% of WBC and largest
become macrophages in connective tissue
Thrombocytes "clotting cells"
plasa membrane enclose cytoplasm broken off from megakaryocytes
at cut release products that attract other platelets, constrict blood vessels and induce inflammation.
generate fibrin, which cause a clot
(when undesired clotting: thrombus or embolus)
occurs in the bone marrow. Makes ~100 billion new cells a day
immature blood cells divide in the reticular connective tissue in bone marrow.
Starts as bloom stem cell and differentiates into lymphoid stem cells or myeloid stem cell
Genesis of erythrocytes
Committed cell is called proerythroblast
collects iron and creates ribosomes which make more and more hemoglobin as it goes from:
early erythroblast > late erythroblast > normoblast
loses most organelles, then becomes reticulocyte, which is a young erythrocyte for 1 or 2 days before degrading ribsomes.
Formation of Leukocytes and Platlets
Polycythemia- bone marrow cancer, too many RBC
Anemia-hemoglobin is low causing fatigue
sickle cell disease- defective hemoglobin causing reduced O2 levels, and difficulty fitting through capillaries
Leukemia- uncontrolled proliferation of WBC< depends on cell line. WBC crowd out red bone marrow
Thrombocytopenia; low platelets
Coverings of the heart (pericardium)
Heart is located in the mediastinum (between the lungs)
fibrous pericardium: the strong outer layer connected inferiorly to diaphragm and superiorly to blood vessels
The serous pericardium consisting of the parietal and visceral layer which are continuous and has pericardial cavity in between
Layers of the heart wall
epicardium- also the visceral layer of serous pericardium
myocardium- made of cardiac muscle, arranged in bundles that contract the heart
endocardium- endothelium on a thin layer of connective tissue that line the heart chambers and valves
Overview of Heart anatomy
Left and right atriums and ventricles
interatrial and interventricularseptum - separating the sides of the heart
coronary sulcus- separates atrium from ventricles
anteror/posterior interventricular sulcus
heart is placed obliquely with apex resting on the diaphragm
Right atrium of heart
receives blood from the superior and inferior vena cava. (de-oxygenated blood)
Right auricle ("little ear")-small flap on superior corner of atrium
Internally has pectinate muscles "like teeth of a comb"
Inferior and anteriorly the right atrioventricular (tricuspid) valve opens up to right ventricle
Right ventricle of heart
most of the anterior surface of the heart.
Inside of ventricle is marked by trabeculae carnae ("little beams of flesh")
Thin strong bands, chordae tendinae, project from the papillary muscles to the tricuspid valve
pumps blood to the pulmonary system via the pulmonary trunk
Left atrium and ventricle of heart
Receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins. Mostly smooth, Pectinate muscles only line the left auricle.
pumps blood to the left ventricle via the mitral (left atrioventricular) valve.
left ventricle forms apex of the heart, pumps blood into systemic circuit via the aortic valve and aorta. Has way thicker walls than right venticle or artiums
Pathway of blood
inferior (body lower than diaphragm) superior (above diaphragm) vena cava and coronary sinus (walls of heart) > right atrium > tricuspid valve > right ventricle > pulmonary semilunar valve > pulmonary trunk > lungs > pulmonary veins (4) > left artium > mitral valve > left ventricle > aortic semilunar valve > aorta > (coronary arteries) systemic
Systole and diastole
Systole - "contraction" of the atrium and ventricles
diastole - "expansion" relaxation and filling of the heart chambers
atrioventricular valve function
Prevent backflow from ventricles into atrium.
when atrium is full and then systole, blood forces valves open. When ventricles are full, valves are forced shut and papillary muscles contract and the chordae tendinae keep the valves from opening into the atrium
the strength of the left ventricle can cause disorders in the mitral valve, allowing backflow into atrium. mitral valve prolapse
heart sounds are from valves closing
Semilunar valve functions
valves that feed pulmonary artery and aorta prevent backflow into ventricles.
pushed shut by backflow of blood into semilunar cusps of the valve flaps
Heart conducting system
Cardiac muscle cells are not dependant on extrinsic factors to conduct an impulse and contract.
The components, listed in sequential order, are the sinoatrial node (wall or right atrium)(pacemaker), atrioventricular node (inferior interatrial septium), atrioventricular bundle (interventricular septum), bundle branches (left and right), and Purkinje fibers (apex and ventricular walls).
insulation by the fibrous skeleton prevents electric impulses from passing directly from artrium to ventricles
Heart chambers sequentially contract in response to the impulse conduction path just listed.
Innervation of the heart
affected by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers which can increase/decrease the rate and
Disorders of the Hear
Coronary heart disease (CAD)- fatty deposits shrink arterial arterial, causing weakness, or if blocked causes myocardial infarction
Heart failure-heart unable to keep up with demands of body (faulty valves), or heart enlarges and weakens
conduction disorder-random stimulation of the heart
Embryonic development of the heart
Structure of most blood vessels
3 Tunics are layers of the blood vessels that surround the lumen, the central cavity
tunic intima- inside layer in contact with lumen, flat endothelial layer, can have subendothelial layer
tinica media- circular smooth muscle cells between elastin and collagen fibrils. Do vasoconstriction and vasodialation
tinica externa- anchors the blood vessel to surrounding tissues. Connective tissue that adds support
Thickest arteries around the heart. The Aorta and immediate connecting artiries (2.5-1 cm in diameter).
Have lots of elastin that can store the potential energy of the influx of blood from the heart
Muscular (distributing) Arteries
1cm-.3mm in diameter
have the largest porportional amount of tunica media to the lumen. Allows for regulation of blood to organs
Just like external elastic lamina of tunica externa, dampens pressure of heart
smallest arteries .3mm-10μm.
tunica media only has 1-2 layers in tunic media. Size is mediated by smooth muscle and sympathetic nervous system indicating vasoconstriction
smallest blood vessels, just large enough for blood vessels with diameter of 8-10μm.
Single layer of endothelial layer with basement membrane
allow for gas exchange, pick up waste, pickup hormones
blood passes from artriole>metaartriole> thoroughfare channel >venules
Thoroughfare channel has sphincters which control the feeding of capillary beds or not.
single layer epithelium are partially connected with gap junctions with intercellular clefts.
Transport includes (1) directly through cells, (2) intercellular clefts, (3) pinocytic vesicles and (4)through fenestrations in fenestrated capillaries
Blood brain barrier has complete tight junctions and specialized active transport
sinusoid capillaries allow for lots of transport, includind proteins (bone marrow)
carry blood towards heart
since blood pressure almost nonexistent after capillaries, veins are much thinner
larger lumen carry 65% of blood at any given time. Veins have valves (from tunica interna) to counteract the lack of pressure. Muscles and movement help
Varicose veins happens when valves fail and blood pools because of insifficient movement
Hemorroids are varicose veins in the anal canal
Veins and arteries intersect, join and break apart allowing for alternative pathways for blood to flow if one is blocked. Blood can still be supplied to limb or organ
little veins and arteries break off from the main lumen to feed the blood vessels
pulmonary trunk>right/left pulmonary arteries (make a "t" under aortic arch)>lobar arteries (3 in right 2 in left lung) >arterioles and bronchi>air sacs>pulmonary veins (4)>left atrium
much less pressure then in systemic circuit
Ascending Aorta leaves left ventricle (posterior to pulmonary trunk) curves over to from Aortic Arch (posterior to manubrium). Three arteries that feed upper body leave Aortic Arch before descending aorta (posterior to heart and decsends along midline). Thoracic aorta (T5-T12 and before diaphragm) becomes abdominal aorta (L1-L4 after diaphragm)
Arteries that feed upper limbs, neck and head
3 arteries branch from Aortic arch.
1) branchiocephalic trunk splits off to becomes right common carotid artery and right subclavian artery
2)left common carotid artery (common means it will split up)
3) left subclavian artery (mostly will go to left arm)
Common carotid arteries
vertebral arteries and thyrocervical and costocervial trunks
feed most of the neck and head
ascend in anterior neck, lateral to the trachea
split into external and internal carotid artery
Can be felt to find a pulse in the neck
Vertebral arteries- branch from subclavian and supply parts of spine in neck and posterior cerebrum
thyrocervical trunk and costocervial trunk-also subclavian, feed scalpular muscles and rest of neck
Arteries of upper extremity
Runs laterally onto first rib and inferior to clavicle.
Feed upper limb and changes name depending on location
Subclavian> axillary artery (border of teres major)> Brachial artery (medial to humerus, deep to biceps)> radial (runs along medial side of brachioradialis, radial side, can feel pulse) and ulnararteries (medial anterior forearm between superficial and deep flexors) >superfical and deep palmar arches
internal thoracic artery - from subclavian artery feed posterior side of rib cage.
Arteries of the thorax
Anterior thoracic wall from internal thoracic artery and anterior intercostal arteries
Posterior thoracic wall from posterior intercostal arteries
internal thoracic artery- paired, branches of from subclavian artery, lateral to the sternum, posterior side of ribcage
Intercostal arteries: branch interthoracic artery and supply intercostal muscles. Some of posterior are from thoracic aorta
Arteries of the abdomen
All from the abdominal aorta
Three midline arteries for digestive and inner tube: celiac trunk, superior/inferior mesenteric arteries
Paired branches for outer tube:adrenal gland, kidneys, gonads, abdominal wall
Inferior phrenic arteries
from T12 just inferior to aorta opening (hiatus) and supply inferior diapragm
short, wide, unpaired, from T12 and emerges midventrally. (coelia="abdominal cavity"), three branches
left gastric artery- (gaster="stomach") runs superiorly and left. Gives branches to esophagus and descends along the "J" of the stomach
splenic artery- runs horizontal and left. Feeds spleen, pancreas and parts of stomach
common hepatic artery-(hepat="liver") Runs right. Hepatic artery proper feeds liver and gallbladder. also branches to right gastric artery and gastroduodenal artery
Superior mesenteric artery
large, unpaired, emerges midventrally from L1 posterior to pancreas. Inferior to celiac trunk.
Runs inferiorly to enter mesentery (membrane that supports small intestine) Feeds majority of small intestine, and part of large intestine
Lateral aortic branch (at L1). paired.
supply the adrenal (suprarenal) glands, superior to kidneys.
paired, from lateral aorta, right below suprarenal arteries.
Supply kidneys ("renal") and remove nitrogenous waste
paired. branch from L2. pass inferiorly to as testicular or ovarian arteries
Inferior mesenteric arteries
unpaired artery, immediately before bifurcation of descending aorta. Supplies distal large intestine and rectum
Four pairs of branches on posterior aorta supply posterior abdominal wall
Middle (median) sacral artery
thin, unpaired, from most inferior part of aorta.
Descends to supply sacrum and coccyx
Common iliac arteries
paired, from level L4, the aorta splits into the right and left common iliac arteries
supply anterior abdominal wall, pelvic organs and lower limbs
divides into internal and external
Arteries of pelvis and lower limb
Common iliac arteries split into external and internal iliac arteries
Internal-supplies pelvic arteries
external supplies lower limb
Internal iliac artery
deep branch of common iliac artery. Supplies blood to pelvic walls, gluteal muscles (gluteal arteries), genital organs(internal pudendal artery), and adductor muscles of leg (obturator artery)
From external iliac artery, after it passes midpoint of inguinal ligament.
early break of deep femoral artery which supplies posterior thigh muscles.
passes medial to femur, later to adductor muscles, goes through adductor hiatus and emerges posterior to femur to become popliteal artery.
continuation of femoral artery, in the posterior knee (popliteal fossa). supplies knee joint.
divides into the anterior and posterior tibial artery
Anterior and posterior tibial artery
Anterior- runs anterior leg through the interosseus membrane. At foot become dorsalis pedis artery and supplies dorsal foot
posterior- runs down posterior medial leg, deep to soleus muscle. Branch into fibular artery. On foot, runs posterior to medial malleolus, supplies plantar side of foot
Systemic Veins (differences with arteries)
Most run alongside arteries of the same name with a few exceptions
-3 veins enter the heart, while one artery leaves it
-All arteries lie deep and are protected, some veins are superficial
-sometimes multiveins instead of one, called venous plexuses
-veins from brain drain into dural sinuses, blood from digestive organs drain into hepatic portal system
Superior and inteferior venae cavae
Superior vena cava- arises from union of left and right brachiocephalic veins (which are each formed by internal jugular vein and subclavian vein)
Inferior vena cava- widest blood vessel in the body, collect all blood inferior to diaphragm, formed from common iliac veins
Veins of the head and neck
Internal jugular vein- drains the dural sinuses which drain the brain. deep to sternocleidomastoid, lateral to carotid arteries. Dumps into brachicephalic vein
External jugular vein- drains posterior, lateral scalp and part of face. Superficial to sternocleidomastoid. empties into subclavian vein
Vertebral veins-only drain cervical vertebrae, spinal cord and superior neck. goes trough transverse foramina as venous plexus. Joins braichiocephalic vein
Veins of upper limb
Deep veins are same as arteries. Radial/ulnar vessels empty into brachial which becomes axially to become subclavian veins
superficial veins-larger than deep veins. start as dorsal venous network on dorsal hand. Empty to cephalic vein (anteriorlateral side of arm to join axillary vein). Basilic vein- anterior and posterior medial side of arm. (enters brachial vein)
median cubital vein- connects basilic and cephalic veins in cubital fossa
Veins of the thorax
Intercostal veins, other thoracic veins, hemiazygos and accesory hemiazygos veins all drain into the Azygos vein which drains into the superiod vena cava
Veins of the abdomen
Drain into inferior vena cava and almost all have names corresponding to arteries.
Lumbar, gonadal (asymetric: left gonadal drain into renal vein), renal veins, suprarenal veins, hepatic veins.
Via hepatic portal: superior mesenteric, splenic, inferior mesenteric, gastric veins (all drain into liver and then hepatic vein to inferior vena cava)
Hepatic portal system
Veins from digestive organs carry nutrients to liver via hepatic pootal system for processing and storage (to breakdown toxins). Travel via hepatic portal vein.
Superior mesenteric vein- small intestine and part of large intestine
splenic vein- spleen isnt digestive, but microbes that excape spleen get broken down in liver
inferior mesenteric vein- distal large intestine and superior rectum
Gastric veins- join hepatic protal vein closer to liver
superficial veins: great sapheneous veins run from dorsal venous arch up medial leg to femoral vein. small sapheneous vein, runs posterior leg to popliteal vein. Form anastomoses
disorders of blood vessels
Aneurysm-outpocket of artery from gradual weakening of the vessel, rupture is dangerous
deep vein thrombosis of lower limb- clot in vein dislodges and become embolism which blocks pulmonary artery. From slow blood, treating with anticlotting agents
venous disease-insufficient drainage of veins, faulty valves, lead to tissue damage
microangiopathy of diabetes- thick leaky capillaries from deposit of glycoproteins (too much blood sugar).
arteriovenous malformation-lack of capillary bed, too much arterial pressure for veins to handle
Blocking of arteries, increased ridigity, hypertension, decreased gas and waste exchange.
Prevent by removing blockages and taking blood thinners
blood vessels are in place by third month. Direction and flow is similar to adult except gas exchange occurs through the placenta via the umbilical chord.
Blood is shunted away from pulmonary system because it is not functioning
vessels to and from placenta and fetal heart shunts
umbilical arteries carry blood to placenta to pick up nutrients and oxygen.
Umbilical veins returns blood to fetus, some to the portal vein and some to the ductus venosus. Then all goes to the fetal heart.
In fetal heart, blood is shunted from the pulmonary circuit via the foramen ovale (in interatrial septum) and ductus arterios (from pulmonary trunk to aortic arch)
The lymphatic system
Capillaries are surrounded by loose connective tissue that collect more blood than leave.
Lymphatic system collects excess blood and returns it to heart. returns leaked proteins to heart and carry absorbed fat from intestine to the blood through lacteals. Also fight disease.
System is only one way. Lymphatic capillaries>lymphatic collecting vessels (have lymph nodes along the way)>lymph trunks>lymph ducts>veins in root of neck
near blood capillaries. Are single layer endothelium with flaplike minivavles that are highly permeable to plasma, proteins, pathogens. Once inside tissue fluid becomes lymph.
Absent from bone, teeth, bone marrow and CNS where excess flows into CSF to superior sagittal sinus.
Lymphatic collecting vessels
narrow and delicate with same layers as veins except much thinner and weaker. Use more valves and bulging nodes to keep lymph moving. (also muscles, pulsing arteries, limb movements, and weak tunica media help). Edema can occur is standing without moving.
Lymphangiography allows for viewing lymphatic collecting vessels
clean lymph of pathogens. 500 nodes in the human body (1-25mm in diameter).
node is covered by fibrous capsule of trabeculae, "beams", which also divide lymph into compartments. Lymph enters through afferent lymphatic vessels and pass through lymph sinuses (subscalpular, cortical and medullary), reticular network, macrophages and then pass through hilum to efferent lymphatic vessels.
all pathogens are killed through because of many lymph nodes
can get swollen from pathogens that arent killed yet. Swollen but not painful lymph nodes is a sign of cancer in lymph nodes
Drain large areas of the body and can be seen in dissection. Lumbar (paired), intestinal (unpaired), bronchomediastinal (paired), subclavian (paired) and jugular trunks (paired).
Trunks drain into ducts.
Thoracic duct is present in all individuals. Has cisterna chyli which is saclike chamber at base. Located mid-thoracic and ventral to spinal cord. Drains lymph from lower body and left upper body into left subclavian vein.
Right lymphatic duct (20% of people) otherwise trunk open directly into neck veins.
The immune system
Targets specific pathogens.
Lymphoctes, lymphoid tissue, and lymphoid organs (spleen, thymus, tonsils, lymphoid nodules in small intestine and appendix)
Target specific antigens
Cytotoxic, killer, CD8+ T lymphocytes- bind to antigens on eukaryotic cells that have been infected or are foreign and initiate apoptosis.
B cells become plasma cells which secrete antibodies. These tag cells (mostly bacteria and toxins) for destruction
NK cells- detect non self antigens and foreign sugars and lyse them..
B cells mature in bone marrow. T cells mature in Thymus. Develop immunocompetence
Released to connective tissue and activated when presented with antigen.
Effector lymphocytes are short lived and respond to pathogen. Plasma cells. helper (CD4) T cells help activation and recruit innate immune system by secreting cytokines.
specialized connective tissue that fights infection. Has lymphoid follicles/nodules, which have germinal centers of dividing lympocytes.
1)mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-mucous membranes of digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive tracts.
2)All lymphoid organs
In upper thorax, posterior to sternum. Grows in size until adolescence and then slowly atrophies. Creates immunocompetent T-cells
Contains lobules each which contains outer cortex (packed with cells) and inner medulla (which has thymic (Hassall's) corpucles which are collections of degenerating reticular cells.
Has blood-thymus barrier and develops self-tolerance.
where lymphatic and immune system intersect
have external cortex with B cellsand inner medulla with T cells, and Helper t cells that activate B cells.
largest lymphoid organ. superior left quadrant of abdomen, posterior to stomach.
Removes blood born antigens and aged/defective blood cells.
Major arteries of spleen are central arteries are surrounded by white pulp which removes antigens from blood. (immune function).
Surrounding white pulp is red pulp which has 1) venous sinuses- blood sinusoids from distal arteries. and 2)splenic cords- reticular connective tissue with macrophages that destroy red blood cells
Palatine tonsils (most likely to be removed), lingual, pharyeal, tubal tonsils.
arranged in a ring around the entrance to pharynx. They are MALT, and packed with lympocytes and have crypts which gather bacteria and particulate matter.
Aggregated lymphoid nodules and appendix
Aggregated lymphoid nodules (Peyer's patches) are in ileum of small intestine are 40 lined up together.
appendix a tubular shootoff of cecum (large intestine). These kill microorganisms and sample large amounts creating memory lymphocytes.
Disorders of lymphatic system
Chylothorax- leakage of fatty lymph, chyle, from thoracic duct into thorax. Decrease fat and volume in blood, too much lymph in pleural cavity.
Lymphangitis- when lymphatic vessel gets swollen and infected
mononucleosis- Epstein-Barr virus, when T cells are activated to destroy infected B cells
Hogkin's disease-malignant lymph nodes, seem to be caused by malignant lymphocytes
Non-hogkin's lymphoma- all other lymph cancers, very dangerous, cancerous B or T cells
are small and discontinuous.
Pure endocrine organs: pituitary gland (base of brain), pineal gland (roof of diencephalon), thyroid and parathyroid glands (neck), Adrenal gland (above kidneys)
other endocrine organs: pancreas, thymus, gonads, and hypothalamus