Critical thinking

  1. What is critical thinking?
    • the art of thinking about thinking while thinking in order to make thinking better
    • that mode of thinking about any subject, content, or probklen in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully analyzing, assessing, and reconstructing it
    • is self-directed, self-diciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective
    • presupposes assent to rigorous standards of excellence and mindful command of their use
    • entails effective communication and problem-solving abilities, as well as commitment to overcome one's native egocentrism and sociocentrism
  2. Analyze thinking
    identify the purpose, question, information, conclusion, assumptions, implications, main concept, and point of view
  3. Assess thinking
    check it for clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, significance, logic, and fairness
  4. The best thinkers are those who..
    • reason their way through problems
    • ask questions when they don't understand
    • don't allow other people to define their level of intelligence
    • realize that no matter how difficult or easy it is for them to  "remember" facts for test, the real work of skills of mind that you can develop, if and when you decide to
  5. continually improving the quality of thinking
    making it more clear, accurate, and precise; with greater depth and breadth; more logical, more relevant and significant, and more fair
  6. To improve thinking
    • commitment, hard work, and practice
    • discover your thinking, see its structure, observe its implications and recognize its basis and vantage point
  7. Reasoning is improved
    when they are clear (intellectual standard) about that purpose or goal. Accuaracy
  8. The best critical thinker pays close attention to thinking by
    • analyzing it
    • evaluating
    • improving it
  9. Thinking critically what must you do
    • examine your thinking and put it to test
    • take your thinking apart to see it as something constructed out of parts
    • identify weakness, while recognizing the strengths
    • creatively reconstruct your thinking to make it better, overcoming the natural tendency of the mind to be rigid
  10. universal intellectual standards
    • clarity (336)
    • relevance (340)
    • logic (343)
    • accuracy (337)
    • depth(341)
    • significance (344)
    • precision (339)
    • breadth (342)
    • fairness (344)
  11. Logical fallacies (396)
    • Emotional language
    • False dilemma
    • Slippery slope
    • Circular reasonings
    • Ad hominem
    • Ad populum
    • Common practice
    • Red herring
    • Straw man
    • Generalizations
    • False analogy
    • Post hoc
    • Non sequitur
  12. What are the three categories of questions and how does each determine its reasoning approach (369)
    • Questions of fact- requires evidence and reasoning within a system, a correct answer, and leads to knowledge
    • Questions of preference- calls for stating a subjective preference, a subjective opinion, and cannot be assessed
    • Questions of judgement- requires evidence and reasoning within multiple systems, better and worse answers, and require reasoned judgement
  13. Socratic thinking (373)
    • intergrated, disciplined approach to thinking
    • provides inner voice
    • probing, analytic, synthetic, creative, connection-forming thought
    • construction of a logical system of understanding
    • leading to insight
    • a natural way to develop and test our understanding of content
    • a natural way to give life to content
    • based on the universal features of thinking and the questions that knowledge of those features generates
  14. what are the attributes of critical thinkers?
    • use theories to explain how the mind works
    • then apply those theories to the way they live every day
    • critical thinking have: self-command of the principles of critical thinking; keep alive in the mind; and have continual engagement in everyday life
  15. What are the standards you should maintain as an effective critical thinker?
    • become a critic of your thinking
    • establish new habits of thought
    • develop confidence in your ability to reason and figure things out
    • apply intellectual standards to thinking
    • focus on clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, logic, significance, and fairness (avoid sweeping statement that could lead to serious errors)
    • cheating and its consequences/ The Honor Code
  16. What is ethics?
    Refers to well-founded standards of right and wrong that prescribe to humans what they ought to do. To have ethics you have moral ground. Gives you limitations and standards that should be reached. Ethics can also be defined as “norms of conduct” that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behavior.
  17. Describe the ethical process (432)
    • The ethical process helps us clarify and evaluate our responses to controversial issues
    • The ethical process is a way of working together to make better decisions and fewer mistakes
    • a guide for thinking
    • The ethical Process involves a series of moves or moments

    • encounter disagreements
    • engage in dialogue
    • develop good reasons
    • value differences
    • uncover assumptions
    • evaluate alternative views
    • modify proposals
  18. Progression of the ethical process
    • encounter disagreements
    • engage in dialogue
    • develop good reasons
    • value differences
    • uncover assumptions
    • evaluate alternative views
    • modify proposals
  19. Characteristics of the ethical process
    • the process is designed for people who are willing to discuss controversial issues with others
    • the process begins with people stating their views of what should be done
    • the process uses argumentative structures
    • the process balances advocacy and inquiry
    • the process includes both descriptive and normative analysis
    • the process connects dialogue and argument
  20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of disagreement?

    • Allows us to examine reasons
    • Increases the pool of resources
    • Can reveal a proposal’s limits
    • May prevent mistakes
    • Can promote a more inclusive and realistic proposal
    • Creates opportunity for learning


    • May threaten cooperations
    • Can create a debating game of winners and losers
    • May delay action
    • May favor “argumentative types over others
    • May stifle participation
  21. Dialogue, debate

    • Is driven by implicit meanings
    • Supports strengths 
    • Strengthens community
    • Allows participants to explore positions
    • Allows participants to face each other as partners


    • Is driven by individual interests
    • Exploits weaknesses
    • Increases alienation
    • Forces participants to protect positions
    • Forces participants to face each other as combatants
  22. What is ethical dilemma?
    An ethical dilemma is a situation wherein moral precepts or ethical obligations conflict in such a way that any possible resolution to the dilemma is morally intolerable. In other words, an ethical dilemma is any situation in which guiding moral principles cannot determine which course of action is right or wrong.
  23. How would ethics affect business decision making?
    involves economic,legal and moral.
  24. What role do ethics play in management? (460)
    • 1. Managers as economic actors- expected to consider primarily economic factors in making decisions, and the main measure of success is profitability
    • 2. managers as company leaders- building and maintaining a companies culture, developing a shared purpose and strategic vision and most importantly meeting challenges and creating a strong enduring organization
    • 3. Managers as community leaders-expected to demonstrate corporate leadership that serves the interests of society of society as a whole
  25. Ethics, business, law (452-456)
    • businesses are economic organizations that operate within a framework of law
    • law prevails in public life whereas ethics is a private matter
    • law is defined as a set of enforceable rules that applies to everyone, whereas ethics is a matter of personal opinion that reflects how we choose to lead our own lives.
  26. at the business decision making level, ethics in business could affect?
    • individual
    • organization
    • business system
  27. economic interest
    the relations of production are revealed precisely through the incentives of human activity, that is, as interests, which are objective conditions of social existence. Economic interests are reflected in the consciousness of people as set goals and are further revealed through the efforts of the will toward achieving the goals.
  28. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) (473)
    • economic responsibility to produce goods and serves and to provide jobs and good wages to the work force while earning a profit
    • includes the obligation to seek out supplies of raw materials to discover new resources and technological improvements and to develop new products
    • legal responsibilites, act as a fiduciary
  29. Michael Porter and Mark Kramer's view of Competitive Advantage in relation of (CSR) (486)
    " A firm that views CSR as a way to placate pressure groups often finds that its approach devolves into a series of short-term defensive reactions- a never-ending public relations palliative with minimal value to society and no strategic benefit for the business
  30. Social responsibility (475)
    • choosing to operate on an ethical level that is higher than what the law requires
    • making contributions to civic and charitable organizations and nonprofit institutions 
    • providing benefits for employees and improving the quality of life in the workplace beyond economic and legal requirements
    • taking advantage of an economic opportunity that is judged to be less profitable but more socially desirable than some alternatives
    • using corporate resources to operate a program that addresses some major social problem
  31. Foreign bribery (517)
    • most common and controversial issues that multinational corporations face
    • bribe is a pmt made with an intention to corrupt
    • dishonest, disloyal or betray a trust in the performance o official duties
  32. cultural differences
  33. Guidelines of MNC (507)
    • Human rights
    • welfare
    • fairness
    • justice
  34. MNC (502)
    • often exploit the cheap labor and the natural resources of LDCs without making investment that would advance economic development
    • long operated in other countries
  35. absolutism versus relativism
    • absolutist position is that business ought to be conducted in the same way the world over with no double standards "when in Rome or anywhere else, do as you would at home"
    • relativism, "when in rome do as the romans do", the only guide for business conduct abroad is what is legally and morally accepted in any given country where a company operates

    • debates revolve around 4 important points
    • 1. morally relevant differences
    • 2. the right of people to decide
    • 3. required conditions for doing business
    • 4. the variety of ethical outlooks
Card Set
Critical thinking
exam 1