1. Diploblastic animals
    • have only 2 layers, the endoderm and the ectoderm 
    • things like cnidarians, corals
  2. Ectoderm
    • most exterior layer
    • covers surface of embryo
    • things like skin, teeth, sweat glands
  3. Endoderm
    • inner most layer
    • liver and lungs
  4. Mesoderm
    • middle layer
    • becomes muscles and GI
  5. Radial symmetry
    have no left or right side; no front or back
  6. Bilateral symmetry
    • 2 sided symmetry; 2 axes of orientation 
    • front and back; top to bottom
  7. Hox genes
    family of homeobox genes tat regulate embryo development alone anterior-posterior axis
  8. Gastrultion
    folding inward at one end of blastula and expanding to fill blastocoel
  9. Coelom
    • body cavity
    • fluid or air filled space between digestive trach and outer body wall
    • most triploblasts have body cavity
  10. True coelom forms from...
    mesoderm tissue
  11. Organisms with true coelom are called...
    Organisms without coelom are called...
    Organisms with fake coelom are called_____ and they arise from the_____ layer
    • coelomates
    • acoelomates 
    • pseudocoelomates; endoderm and mesoderm
  12. Functions of the coelom
    • suspends organs and prevents their injury
    • can act like skeleton
    • can allow internal organs to grow and move independently of outer body wall
  13. Protosome and Deuterostome development
    modes of development distinguished by difference in cleavage, coelom form and future of blastopore
  14. Protosomes have _____ cleavage and _____ fate
    • spiral cleavage
    • determinate
  15. spiral cleavage
    planes of cell division are diagonals to vertical axis of embryo
  16. determinate fate
    • fate/destiny of each embryonic cell is set early
    • knows its job
  17. Deuterstomes have _______ cleavage and an _______ fate
    • radial cleavage
    • indeterminate
  18. radial cleavage
    planes of cell division are parallel to vertical axis
  19. indeterminate fate
    every cell produces by early cleavage has capacity to develop into complete embryo 
  20. 3 major clades of bilaterian animals
    lophotochozoa, dueterostoma, ecydza
  21. in dueterostomes coelom forms...
    from the fold of archenteron
  22. in protostomes coelom froms from....
    splits in mesoderm
  23. in protostomes mouth and anus develops...
    • from the 1st opening which is the blastopore 
    • while anus develops from 2nd opening which is archenteron
  24. in deuterstoms anus and mouth...
    anus develops from blastospore and mouth develops 2d from opening of archenteron
  25. Deuterstomia is name...
    • for one clade of bilaterates
    • also a type of development
  26. Eumetazoa
    • is clade with true tissue
    • basal eumetazoans are diploblastic and have radial symmetry
  27. All lineages of bilatera are ______ except for ______
    • invertebrates
    • chordata
  28. Ecdyzoa
    • have exoskeleton
    • go throu shedding of exoskeleton
    • lobsters, crab "ecdysis"
  29. Lophotrochozoa
    • some phyla have lophophore
    • a crown of ciliated tentacles for feeding 
    • some phyla have trocophore larva
    • developmental stage in mollusks and annelids
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