SOCI 1125

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  1. Sociology
    The systematic study of human behaviour in social context
  2. Social solidarity
    • 1. The degree to which group members share beliefs and values
    • 2. the intensity and frequency of their interactions
  3. Values
    Ideas about what is right and wrong
  4. Theory
    A tentative explanation of some aspect of social life that states how and why certain facts are related
  5. Altruistic Suicide
    Occurs in settings that exhibit very high levels of social solidarity (Durkheim). Altruistic suicide results that norms very tightly governing behaviour
  6. Egoistic suicide
    Results from the poor integration of people into society because of weak social ties to others (Durkheim)
  7. Anomic suicide
    • Occurs in settings that exhibit low levels of social solidarity (Durkheim).
    • Anomic suicide results from vaguely defined norms governing behaviour
  8. Social Structure
    Relatively stable patterns of social relations
  9. Sociological imagination
    The quality of mind that enables one to see the connection between personal troubles and social structures
  10. Microstructures
    The patterns of relatively intimate social relations formed during face-to-face interaction
  11. Macrostructures
    • Overarching patterns of social relations that lie outside and above a persons circle of intimates and acquaintances.
    • E.i. Classes, bureaucracies, ¬†and power systems
  12. Patriarchy
    The traditional system of economic and political inequality between women and men
  13. Global structures
    • Patterns of social relations that lie outside ad above the national level.
    • E.i. International organizations, patterns of worldwide communication and travel.
  14. Industrial Revolution
    • "most important event in world history"
    • rapid economic transformation
    • from agriculture to technology
  15. Functionalism
    Theory that human behaviour is governed by relatively stable social structures, or social relations.
  16. Conflict theory
    • Focuses on large macro level structures, such as the relations among classes.
    • Show how structure maintain or undermine social stability
  17. Class conflict
    The struggle between classes to resist and overcome the opposition of other classes
  18. Class consciousness
    Awareness of belonging to the social class of which one is a member
  19. Protestant ethic
    16th and 17th century protestant belief that religious doubts can be reduced and a state of grace assured, if people work diligently and live ascetically
  20. Symbolic interactionism
    • Focus on interpersonal communication in micro level social settings, distinguishing it from both conflict and functionalism theories.
    • Emphasizes that social life is possible only because people attach meanings to things
    • Stresses that people help create their social circumstances and do not merely react to them
  21. Feminist Theory
    Patriarchy is as important as class inequality in determining a persons opportunities in life
  22. Research
    the process of systematically observing reality to assess the validity of a theory
  23. Experiment
    Carefully controlled artificial situation
  24. Variable
    Something that can hold different values
  25. Randomization
    Assigning individuals to groups by chance process
  26. Dependant variable
    The presumed effect in a cause and effect relationship
  27. Experimental group
    the group that is exposed to the independent variable
  28. Control group
    group that is not exposed to ind variable
  29. Independent variable
    the presumed cause in a cause-and-effect relationship
  30. Reliability
    The degree to which a measurement procedure yields consistent results
  31. Validity
    The degree to which a measure actually measures what it is intended to measure
  32. Survey
  33. Probability sample
    Sample in which the units have a known and non-zero chance of being selected
  34. Sampling Frame
    A list of all the people in the population of interest
  35. Association
    relationship between two variables if the value of one variable changes with value of another
  36. Detached observation
    A type of field research that involves classifying and counting the behaviour of interest according to a predetermined scheme
  37. Reactivity
    Observed people may conceal certain things or act artificially to impress the researcher
  38. Participant observation
    researcher that engages in the context and observes at the same time
  39. Analysis of existing documents and official statistics
    a non reactive research method that involves the analysis of diaries, newspapers, published historical works, and statistics produced by government agencies.
  40. Post-industrial Revolution
    The technology-driven shift from manufacturing to service industries and the consequences of that shift for virtually all human activities
  41. Globalization
    The process by which formerly separate economies, nation-states, and cultures are becoming tied together and people are becoming increasingly aware of their growing interdependence
  42. Culture
    The sum of practices, languages, symbols, beliefs, values, ideologies, and material objects that people create to deal with real-life problems
  43. High culture
    Culture consumed mainly by upper classes
  44. Popular/mass culture
    Culture consumed by all classes
  45. Society
    Number of people who interact, usually in a defined territory, and share a culture
  46. Abstraction
    The human capacity to create general ideas or ways of thinking that are not linked to particular instances
  47. Symbol
    • Anything that carries a particular meaning
    • ei. components of language, mathematical notations and signs
    • Allows us to classify experience and generalize from it
  48. Cooperation
    Human capacity to create a complex social life by sharing resources and working together
  49. Norms
    Generally accepted ways of doing things
  50. Production
    The human capacity to make and use tools. it improves our ability to take what we want from nature.
  51. Material culture
    The tools and techniques that enable people to accomplish tasks
  52. Non-material culture
    Symbols, norms, and other non-tangible elements of culture
  53. Folkway
    The least important norms-norms the evoke the least severe punishment
  54. Mores
    Core norms that most people believe are essential for the survival of their group or society
  55. Taboos
    Strongest norms. When violated causes revulsion in the community and severe punishment
  56. Sapir-Whorf Thesis
    Holds that we experience certain things in our environment and form concepts about those things. Then develop language to express, finally, the language influences how we see the world.
  57. Ethnocentrism
    tendency to judge other cultures exclusively by the standards of your own
  58. Manifest Functions
    Visible and intended effects of social structures
  59. Latent Functions
    The invisible and unintended effects of social structures
  60. Multiculturism
    Policy that reflects Canada's ethnic and racial diversity in the past and enhances diversity today
  61. Cultural Relativism
    Belief that all cultures have equal values
  62. Rights revolution
    Process by which socially excluded groups have struggled to win equal rights under the law in practice
  63. Rites of passage
    Cultural ceremonies that mark the transition from one stage of life to another(marriage) or from life to death(funeral)
  64. Postmodernism
    Culture characterize by eclectic mix of cultural elements from different times and places, the erosion of authority, and the decline of consensus around core values
  65. Rationalization
    Application of the most efficient means to achieve given goals and the unintended, negative consequences of doing so
  66. Consumerism
    Tendency to define ourselves in terms of the goods and services we purchase
  67. Subculture
    Set of distinctive values, norms, and practices within a larger culture
  68. Countercultures
    Subversive subcultures that oppose dominant values and seek to replace them
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SOCI 1125
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