A: Finals: Ophthalmology

  1. Give 4 DDx for acute painful red eye
    • Conjunctivitis
    • Acute glaucoma
    • Scleritis
    • Keratitis
  2. How is sleritis different from episcleritis
    • Urgency - scleritis can cause visual loss
    • Visual changes
    • Pain more severe
    • Non-blanching with phenylephrine
  3. Give 4 causes of sudden visual loss
    • Retinal artery occlusion (TA)
    • Vitreous haemorrhage
    • Optic neuritis/MS, diabetes
  4. What is seen on opthalmic examination in ARMD?
    • Drusen
    • Dot haemorrhage
    • Hypopigmentation
  5. What is the pathophysiology of dry ARMD?
    • Accumulation of hard exudate causes drusen
    • Interruption of nutrient supply (mechanism unknown)
    • Atrophy of RPE
    • Loss of visual acuity
  6. What is the difference between close and open angle glaucoma?
    • Open angle caused by excess production/insufficient absorption of aqueous humour
    • Closed angle caused by insufficient drainage due to closure of trabecular meshwork
  7. Give 3 examinations are used in suspected glaucoma
    • Tonometry: Increased IOP
    • Slit lamp: Increased cup-to-disk ratio
    • Perimetry: Visual field loss
  8. Give 2 medications available for increased IOP
    • Prostaglandin analogues
    • Topical beta blockers (timolol)
Card Set
A: Finals: Ophthalmology