Child D exam 1

  1. Observational research method
    Advantages: Greater control, children are all in the same context

    Disadvantages: Less natural, Children can behave differently
  2. Observational research method
    Advantages: In their usual environments, prevents the observer from influencing behavior. Reveals social interaction processes. Natural environment.

    Disadvantages: Difficult to determine what is most influential. Many important behaviors only occur occasionally.
  3. types of interviews: Clinical and Sturctured
    Clinical: interviewer has prepared questions but can follow up with individualized questions.

    Structured: They only use prepared questions.
  4. Self report research method
    Advantages: they can put their thoughts into their own words and can get in-depth information about each individual child. 

    Disadvantages: Often biased and it can be difficult for them to recall things that happened in the past.
  5. Self report research method
    Advantages: Gather a lot of info from a wide amount of people or children.

    Disadvantages: little depth and can be inaccurate.
  6. psycho physiology measures
    Heart Rate, arousal, and brain regions
  7. Heart rate when babies are interested
    slows down
  8. EEG
    measures states of arousal (electric levels)
  9. FMRI's
    can measure specific activity in certain brain regions
  10. Reliability vs validity
    Validity: Methods measure what they are supposed to measure

    Reliability: Consistency or repetition of measures

    ex// Your best friend tells you your other best friend broke up with their boyfriend. they are reliable not valid.
  11. Experimental research design
    Use it when you want to control something. Dependent and independent variables. science.
  12. Correlation research design
    Measure relationship between two variables but do not control them.
  13. Relationship between correlation and causation
    Correlation does not imply causation
  14. Cross-sectional research design
    • Examine different children at different ages.
    • Can't show how individuals change over time.
  15. Longitudinal research design
    Follow the same children over time. Takes a long time.
  16. Habituation vs dishabituation paradigm
    Habituation: change in attention with repetition. (boring)

    Dishabituation: Recovering the attention of infants. They notice a change. (exciting)
  17. Germinal stage
    • -Starts with fertilization and ends with implantation.
    • -Rapid cell division occurs
  18. Proximodistal development
    From center outward
  19. Embryonic Stage
    • -Starts with attachment to the uterine wall and ends with formation of bone cells.
    • -Develops life support system, organs, some movement occurs (mother cannot feel this)
    • -Heart starts beating
    • -Formation of neural tube
    • -proximodistal development
  20. Fetal Stage
    • -Starts with formation real bones and ends with birth
    • -Major growth occurs
    • -Mother starts to feel movements
    • -Senses grow
    • -Cephalocaudal development (head to toe)
    • -Practice being babies (thumb sucking, breathing)
    • -sleeping patterns
  21. Quickening
    first movements felt by mother
  22. Teratogens
    • Environmental agents that can cause harm to a fetus. 
    • Ex: alcohol, raw fish, stress, litter boxes, drugs
  23. Which stage is most susceptible to teratogons?
    Embryonic stage: because of major organ development
  24. Low birth weight babies
    Premature and small for gestational age
  25. Sucking reflex
    • Sucking finger
    • Adaptive: feeding reflex
  26. rooting reflex
    • turning head toward touch
    • Adaptive: feeding
  27. Grasping Reflex
    • spontaneous grasp
    • prep for voluntary grasp
  28. Moro Reflex
    • Startle reflex
    • responds to being startled, to show sense of danger
  29. babinski Reflex
    • Toes fan out and curl
    • We don't know the function of this weird baby thing
  30. Auto-stimulation theory
    REM makes up for visual absence during sleep
  31. Recognition of smells
    (McFarlane Study)
    • At 6 days old and on babies start to recognize their mothers smell.
    • (Breast pad study)
  32. Auditory Learning
    They develop hearing in the womb, and can hear mothers voice and recognize and prefer it. (Cat in the Hat study, preferred the story read to them in womb by mother)
  33. Limitations in vision
    • getting and reading an image
    • Cant focus on an object
    • and catch only 2% of light. 
    • (eyes not fully developed)
  34. Kinetic cues (motion parallax)
    objects closer move faster than those far away.
  35. Pictorial cues (interposition)
    near objects block far objects
  36. Pictorial cues (relative size)
    Closer objects appear larger
  37. Testing pictorial cues in infants. (Yonas studies)
    testing depth perception. develops after 7 months
  38. Visual Cliff Study (Major results)
    After 9 months the baby develops fear of crossing deep looking side.
  39. Visual Cliff Study (Social referencing results)
    • If it looks shallow enough they will cross even if their mom tells them not to. 
    • If it looks too deep they will not cross even if their mom tells them to
    • If they are unsure they will listen to their mom
  40. Assimilation vs accomodations
    assimilation: translate new info to fit existing knowledge

    accommodation: changing knowledge based on new info

    Together they balance to create a stable understanding
  41. Piagets 4 stages
    • Sensorimotor
    • preoperational
    • concrete
    • formal
  42. Sensorimotor stage
    • reflexes
    • lack object permanence
    • developing senses and motor
  43. preoperational stage
    During this stage, children do not yet understand concrete logic, cannot mentally manipulate information, and are unable to take the point of view of other people.
  44. Egocentrism
    Can't see others perspectives
  45. perception bound
    focused on appearance, and reality.
  46. animistic reasoning
    inanimate objects get lifelike qualities
  47. transductive reasoning
    link events that are close in time, do not understand true cause and effect relationships.
  48. Concrete operational
    success with logical and basic knowledge. have trouble with abstract reasoning.
  49. formal operations
    • master abstract reasoning. 
    • Develop moral views gain insight on different views
  50. modified number conservation task
    • Gelman study
    • -smaller numbers
    • -different numbers (2 vs 3) who is the winner?
  51. unit vs group label
    • markman study
    • couldnt differentiate number of soldiers but could recognize that the groups were equal
  52. Magic show studies
    • Rosengren
    • 4 and 5 year olds could explain everyday transformations
    • 4 year olds thought magic was real
    • 5 year olds knew it was trickery.
    • Children learned from their parents
  53. scale model studies
    children did not understand that the scale model was a representation of the room, but understood the picture of the room was a representation of it
  54. dual representation
    • dual representation is a need for scale model tasks so that kids can represent something for a real object.
    • shrinking machine
  55. evaluating piagets theory
    • he was wrong, object permanence was found during younger ages.
    • development is gradual and not invariant.
Card Set
Child D exam 1
study guide for psychology child development