chapter 13 forensic

  1. in almost every crime there is a
  2. while we often feel sympathy toward victims, we also question why they became victims in the first place. this is an example of a..
    just world
  3. generally when considering someone elses actions, we use ____ ____ that focus on the persons ability level, personality, or even temporary states as explanations for the conduct in question
    dispositional attributions
  4. we tend to blame the victim if we feel that a victim is ____ for their own suffering, and thus we feel less obligated to help them
  5. types of victims
    criminal victimizations, crimes of violence, acts of racial or religious discrimination, homophobic attitudes,
  6. homo youth are at higher risk for ___ victimization and the ____ consequences of the victimization
    violent; psychological
  7. because of increased victimization, homos are significantly more likely to report ____ abuse and _____ ideation
    substance; suicidal
  8. being threatened by the risk of illness can cause us to victimize even ___ people, which includes the seriously ___
  9. most of the legal rights formally protected in the adversarial system are extended to ____, not ____
    defendants, victims
  10. concentrates on studying the process and consequences of victimization experiences and how victims recover
  11. there is an increasing availability of ____ to crime victims
  12. ____ or ____ children were significantly more likely than the comparison group in this study to have been arrested for violent crimes as juveniles or as adults
    abused or neglected
  13. the relationship between abuse and violence was particularly strong in ____ americans
  14. both men and women with histories of childhood abuse and neglect displayed increased levels of _____ disorders and _____ personality characteristics
    personality; antisocial
  15. abused and neglected women also reported more ____ problems than both men and matched groups
  16. individuals who suffer a severe trauma and weeks or months later continue to experience intense, fear related reactions
  17. 1) Frequent re experiencing of the event through intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, and repeated nightmares
    2) persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and a general numbing or deadening of emotions
    3)increased physiological arousal resulting in exaggerated startle responses
    symptoms of PTSD
  18. the extent of injury during trauma also ____ whether ptsd symptoms will develop. the belief that the victims life is in danger and that he or she has no control over the trauma _____ risk
    predict, increases
  19. trauma related symptoms that last less than one month
    acute stress disorder
  20. one reason why acute stress disorder doesnt progress into ptsd is because of high levels of _____ support.
  21. as a form of therapy, emotionally reexperiencing trauma and correcting beliefs about personal inadequacy has been shown to ____ PTSD
  22. early victimization experiences may be related to _____ psychiatric diagnoses and criminal conduct among adolescents
  23. its been estimated that some form of physical ______ occurs in _____ to ____ of all couples
    aggression, 1/4 to 1/3
  24. about 30% of all women murdered in the US each year are killed by...
    their male partners
  25. these people are more likely to be unemployed, less well educated, members of minority groups, and lower socioeconomic status
  26. batterers tend to have been raised in families in which they either suffered physical _____ as children or _____ an abusive relationship between their parents
    abuse, observed
  27. the three types of batterers
    • 1) generally violent
    • 2) psychopathological
    • 3) family only
  28. of the 3 batterer types, this type displayed the highest levels of aggressive-sadistic behavior
    violent batterers
  29. of the 3 batterer types, this type exhibited more passive aggressive/dependent characteristics
  30. of the 3 batterer types, this one showed violent behaviors but generally did not hold violence supportive beliefs and attitudes
    family only batterer
  31. pattern of emotional and behavioral instability that makes their victims all the more fearful of the battering they believe is inevitable
    cycle of violence
  32. characterized by increased criticism of the partner and perhaps even minor physical assaults
    tension-building phase (first stage of the cycle of violence)
  33. more serious form of aggression, the woman has become too dependent on the man to break off the relationship easily
    acute battering incident (2nd stage of cycle of violence)
  34. occurs when the batterer apologizes for his attack, promises never to do it again, and persuades the woman that he is a changed man
    contrite phase (third stage of the cycle of violence)
  35. a severe disturbance that is characterized by unstable moods and behavior, over 40% of batterers have features of this
    borderline personality disorder
  36. collection of symptoms and reactions by a woman to a pattern of continued physical and psychological abuse inflicted on her by her mate
    battered woman syndrome
  37. a typical case that claims battered woman syndrome doesn't usually involve a specific episode, they often kill their abuser when he is _____
  38. people that are more tolerant of rape are more likely to have ____ beliefs about gender roles, more adversarial sexual beliefs, and greater need for power and dominance, and heightened expressions of aggression and anger
  39. the US has one of the highest rates of forcible ____ among the worlds industrialized countries
  40. women raped as minors are __x as likely to report being raped as adults
  41. 1) the type of aggression the rapist used
    2) when the level of aggression was high, whether it heightened sexual arousal in a sadistic mannerĀ 
    3) whether the offender showed evidence of psychopathy or anti social personality disorder
    4)whether the offender relied on deviant sexual fantasies to produce sexual arousal
    4 distinguishing factors of rapists
  42. emphasizing rape as a pseudosexual act of male domination and exploitation of women
    feminist theory of rape
  43. sexual aggression is learned through observation and imitation
    social learning approach on rape
  44. natural selection favors men who used forced sexual behavior
    evolutionary theory of rape
  45. the majority of rapists are never imprisoned for their offenses, fewer than ___% of rapes result in convictions
  46. over ___ of rapes are committed by acquaintances, and these are the assaults that women are ___ likely to report
    3/4, least
  47. rapes tend to occur between ___ pm and __ am. and usually take place at the assailants ____. they usually involve ____ and drugs
    10 pm and 1 am; home; alcohol
  48. three kinds of reactions: emotional responses, disturbances in functioning, and changes in lifestyle. primary emotional response is fear
    rape trauma syndrome
  49. victims of rape often ____ themselves and question why they didnt ____ more vigorously
    blame; resist
  50. changes in sleep patterns, social withdrawl, changes in appetite, problems in sexual functioning
    disturbance in functioning caused by rape
  51. the period of sexual dissatisfaction lasts about ___ week (s) after rape
  52. people who have been sexually abused report to having ____ sexual satisfaction
  53. phase of the rape attack and last a few hours or a day
    acute phase of rape
  54. when the suspect is examined for rape, but it causes a resurgence of the initial feelings of disruption, helplessness, hostility, and violation
    secondary victimization
  55. a sort of flashback in which some of the symptoms of the acute crisis phase, particularly phobias and disturbances in eating and sleeping return.
    secondary crisis phase of rape
  56. long term consequences of rape include
    increased fear and anxiety. rape victims are also significantly more depressed
  57. non consenting sexual contact that is obtained by using force
    sexual assault
  58. involve sexual intercourse by forcible compulsion under aggravated circumstances
    first degree sexual assault
  59. requires sexual intercourse by forcible compulsion
    second degree sexual assault
  60. sexual intercourse without consent or with threat of substantial harm to property rights
    third degree sexual assault
  61. provides victims with more protection, previous to this law it was a frequent defense was to attack the victims truthfullness and her general morality
    rape shield laws
  62. 1) training potential victims how to best protect themselves
    2) designing effective treatment for rapists o that they do not repeat their crimes
    two basic strategies for preventing rape
  63. women who did not resist a rape attack were ____ as likely to suffer a completed rape as women who tried to protect themselves
  64. 1) when both the victim and the assailant have been drinking or using drugs
    2) on dates in which the man pays all the expenses
    3) when the date is at an isolated location
    most likely cases for acquaintance rape
  65. in the US it is not uncommon for ___ ____ to be prescribed to offenders to reduce their sex drive
    chemical castration
  66. chemical castration doesnt always reduce _____ arousal because it is not dependent on their level of testosterone
  67. unwanted sexual attention
    sexual harassment
  68. involves antipathy toward women, reflecting a belief that males are superior to women and should be dominant over them
    hostile sexism
  69. attitude of protection toward women; it reflects belief that as the weaker sex, women need to be shielded from the worlds harshness
    benevolent sexism
  70. both men and women were more likely to perceive behavior directed by someone of ____ status at someone of equal of lesser rank in the workplace as harassment than if it happened between peers
  71. involves sexual demands that are made in exchange for employment benefits; essentially sexual coercion
    quid pro quo
  72. involves demeaning comments, acts of touching or attempted intimacy, or the display of provocative photographs or artwork
    hostile workplace harassment
  73. a legal tactic by which criminal defendants claim a history of abuse as an excuse for violent retaliation
    abuse excuse
  74. 1) harassing behaviors were serious
    2) the complainant had witnesses to support the charges
    3) the complainant had given notice to management prior to filing formal charges
    sexual harassment charges are more likely to be resolved in favor of the complainant with deese
Card Set
chapter 13 forensic
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