chapter 6 forensic

  1. helps narrow criminal investigations to suspects who possess certain behavioral and personality features that were revealed by the way the crime was committed
    criminal profiling
  2. profiling does not identify a specific suspect, it offers a ____ psychological description of the most likely type of suspect
  3. criminal profiling is considered most helpful in crimes in which the offender has demonstrated some form of ____ behavior with unusual suspects
  4. criminal profilers must have experience as a criminal _____
  5. a key to criminal profiling research is by interviewing those who have committed a ____ type of offense in order to learn their ____
    specific; tendencies
  6. historically, homicides were committed by killers who were ___ _____ with their victims, had a personal but ____ motive, killed once, and were then arrested
    well acquainted, rational
  7. because mass murders are relatively rare, they are virtually impossible to _____
  8. two types of homicides:
    • -mass murders
    • -serial murders
  9. kills four or more victims in one location during a period of time that lasts anywhere from a few minutes to several hours
    mass murders
  10. although most mass murderers are not severally mentally ill, they do tend to harbor strong feelings of ____ and are often motivated by ______
    resentment; revenge
  11. special form of mass murderers in which the attacker kills victims at two or more different locations with no cooling off interval between murders. the killings constitute as a single event
    spree killers
  12. _____ murderers kills four or more victims, each on separate occasions. they usually contain a certain type of victim who fulfills a role in the killers fantasies
  13. most serial offenders victims are ____ females who were strangers to the killers
  14. most serial murders are _____ motivated
  15. serial killers tend to select _____ victims in order to gratify their need to ____ people
    vulnerable; control
  16. serial killers are not typically psychotic individuals, but they do tend to have ______ disorders with deficits in their capacities to experience _____ and remorse
    personality; empathy
  17. 1) profiling inputs
    2)decision process models
    3) crime assessment
    4) criminal profile
    5) investigation
    6) apprehension
    6 phases in a murder investigation
  18. collecting all information available about the crime. the profiler does not want to be told about possible suspects at this stage, because such data might prejudice the profile
    1) profiling inputs
  19. organizes the input into meaningful questions and patterns
    2) decision process models
  20. reconstructing the behavior of the offender and the victim
    3) crime assessment
  21. profilers formulate an initial description of the most likely suspects. profilers check their predictions against stage two information to make sure that the profile fits the original data
    4) criminal profile
  22. a written report is given to investigators, who concentrate on suspects matching the profile
    5) investigation
  23. intended result of these procedures, arrest of a suspect, allows profilers to evaluate the validity of their predictions
  24. are criminal profiles valid? crime scenes can be classified with reasonable reliability, differences in crimes do correlate with certain offender _______
  25. in determining if someone is lying , people are only right ___ % of the time
  26. people are biased toward judging statements as being truthful. We tend to take most assertions at face value, assuming that they are true unless their authenticity is called into question
    truth bias
  27. people that are experienced at judging deceit are no better at it than people with ___ experience
    no. expertise does provide skepticism though, they are less likely to exhibit a truth bias and less likely to believe others are truthful
  28. cues that accurately distinguish a truth teller from an imposter
    diagnostic cues
  29. there are very few reliable _____ cues to deception
    non verbal
  30. truth statements tend to be _____ than lies
  31. truth tellers are ____ likely than liars to say they cant recall certain details. liars also tend to speak in a higher pitched voice and make more _____ errors
    more; speech
  32. designed to mentally tax a person so that it becomes difficult to simultaneously answer a question and maintain a lie. lying is cognitively taxing
    cognitive load interviews
  33. the most popular approach to polygraphic examinations
  34. in CQT, guilty subjects should be ____ aroused by the relevant questions (questions about the crime under investigation). Whereas innocent subjects should be ____ aroused by the comparison questions (questions not directly concerned with the crime under investigation)
    more; more
  35. goal of this polygraphic test is to detect the presence of guilty knowledge in the suspects mind. it relies on the accumulation of facts that are known only by the police, the criminal, and any surviving victims
    guilty knowledge test (GKT)
  36. when an examiner believes that a liar is truthful
    false negative
  37. when an examiner believes that a truthful subject is lying
    false positive
  38. polygraphs are valuable at the ____ stages of a criminal prosecution
  39. in half of the states, when a defendant takes a polygraph test with the understanding that the prosecutor will drop the charges if the defendant passes the test but may use the results in court if the defendant does not ____
  40. when a defendant has passed a polygraph test exam, they can have that evidence _____ in an ongoing investigation
  41. the US Supreme Court declared that ____ tests results and opinions cant be admitted in court
  42. jurors put little stock in results of _____ tests
    polygraph. jurors are skeptical!
  43. using fMRI to detect brain areas that are ____ with high level execution suggest that telling lies requires more ____ effort than telling the truth
    associated; cognitive
  44. we cant tell if fMRI tech can handle situations in which a subjects response cant be organized as a ___ or ___
    truth or lie
  45. uses an EEG to record electrical activity on the surface of the scalp, reflecting spontaneous activity from the underlying cerebral cortex
    brain finger printing. can be used in court like the polygraph if it helps with proving innnocence
  46. a brain fingerprinting evaluated neural activity to assess how a suspect responds to crime scene details only known to the ____
  47. a _____ permits a district attorney or grand jury to bring charges
  48. confessions are only admissible if they are obtained after the police had ensured the suspects protection from self incrimination. vat is this
    the Miranda Warning
  49. courts preference for maintaining stability in its decisions whenever possible
    stare decisis
  50. 1)confessions that violate Miranda may still be used at a trial
    2)confessions by defendants who dont fully understand the warnings may still be used at a trial
    3)miranda does not apply unless the suspect is in the custody of the police
    4)miranda does not apply unless the defendant is being interrogated
    weakening of the miranda
  51. when a guilty suspect falsely claims their innocence
    false negative
  52. when an innocent suspect confesses
    false positive
  53. false negatives occur more often than false positives
  54. confessions can be proved to be false in situations where it was ______ impossible for a suspect to commit the crime
  55. a disputed confession can be proven false if the actual perp is ____ and his guilt is ____ established
    identified; objectively
  56. ____ is the most common way to prove a confession is false
  57. Miranda warnings are only required when the suspect is being _____ while in custody. if the suspect is told he is free to go, there is no need to read the warning
  58. police use these to break down a suspects defenses, lower his resistance, and instill feelings of fear, despair, and powerlessness
    negative incentive
  59. when interrogators try to send the message that the suspect will receive some benefit in exchange for his admission of wrongdoing
    positive inducements
  60. _____ is one of the most basic tactics of interrogating, it ____ the burden of proof from the state to the suspect
    accusation, shifts
  61. even if interrogators have no evidence of the suspects wrongdoing then can make him believe that they do. this is..
    fabricated evidence
  62. people will less experience in the justice system are more likely than people with felony records to ____ their rights and submit to questioning
    wave. mostly because of their just world beliefs
  63. presumption of guilt with innocent victims can be a bad mix. they can become defensive or confused which increases their chances of a ____ confession
  64. interrogators who assume that their suspects are guilty use more ____ based interrogative techniques
  65. occurs because the suspect is induced to comply with the interrogators demands to make an incriminating statement
    compliant false confessions
  66. some suspect confess because they actually come to believe that they have committed the crime
    internalized false confessions
  67. jurors are ____ likely to convict defendants who have confessed even when the confession is false
Card Set
chapter 6 forensic