Livestock Judging CDE Test Questions!

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  1. The breed of cattle that was developed on the King Ranch in Texas and consists of 3/8 Brahman and 5/8 Shorthorn is called:
    Santa Gertrudis
  2. A breed of cattle that originated in Scotland that has a smooth hair coat, black in color, polled, and is one of the most popular breeds in the United States today:
  3. The breed of swine which is white in color with erect ears and used extensively in commercial operations for the maternal characteristics is the:
  4. The breeds of cattle with origin in Europe such as Charolais, Simmental, and Limousin are usually referred to as:
    Continental Breeds
  5. The record of the ancestors of a particular animal is recorded in its:
  6. The most prevalent fine-wool breed of sheep in the United States is the:
  7. An objectionable inherited defect in swine known as a whorl is actually a(n) :
    hair disturbance
  8. The class of sheep that are evaluated more on the quality of their fleece than other sheep
    are known as:
    Fine-wool breeds
  9. One common characteristic between Hampshire, Yorkshire, and Berkshire swine is:
    erect ears
  10. Breeds of cattle that are used for both milk and meat production are considered to be:
    dual-purpose breeds
  11. Beef cattle or sheep born without horns are commonly referred to as:
  12. Which major swine breed originated in England, with the major development of the breed occurring in Kentucky? Originally known as the Thin Rind.
  13. One common characteristic between Yorkshire, Landrace, and Chester Whites is:
  14. Which state produces the most hogs?
  15. Which of the following breeds of swine is best on performance of litter size?
  16. Which state produces the most beef cattle? 
  17. Which breed of beef cattle imported from France was originally used as draft animals?
  18. The first American breed of beef cattle was the: 
    Texas Longhorn
  19. The first breed of beef cattle imported to the United States in the late 1700’s was the:
  20. The first of the Continental breeds to be imported in the United States:
  21. The most popular breed of registered medium wool sheep in the United States is the: 
  22. More than one-half of all the crossbred sheep in the United States carry some percentage of the particular breed.
  23. Beef cattle categorized as American breeds have what breed as a genetic base?
  24. Which exotic breed of cattle originated from Italy?
  25. What breed of cattle used in the United States came from Australia?
    Murray Grey 
  26. What is an animal resulting from the mating of two different breeds?
  27. Which breed of cattle descended from Spanish Andalusian cattle brought over by Columbus on his second voyage?
    Texas Longhorn
  28. The most prevalent breed of sheep in the world is the:
  29. What is a free-roaming “wild” animal that was once domesticated called?
  30. What trait of a hog refers to its ability to raise large litters of pigs?
    maternal quality
  31. Which common breed of swine was imported to the United States from Denmark?
  32. What do Hampshires, Polands, and Berkshires have in common?
  33. Which breed of swine is considered the oldest?
  34. Which of the following breeds of swine is best on performance of litter size?
  35. What country produces the most swine?
  36. Which of the following countries has the most sheep? 
  37. The majority of composite breeds of cattle in the United States use what breed as a foundation?
  38. Which of the following breeds of cattle did not originate in Italy? 
    Maine Anjou 
  39. Modern domestic cattle evolved from what single early ancestor? 
  40. Which of the following breeds of sheep based on popularity is the most significant breed in the world?
  41. Which breed of sheep was developed at North Carolina State University? 
    Polled Dorset
  42. Suffolk sheep ancestry goes back to what breed of sheep? 
  43. Which of the following breeds of cattle is primarily red in color? 
  44. Which of the following breeds of cattle is NOT primarily white to gray in color?
  45. What breed of sheep that has a distinctive white face originated in Scotland? 
  46. Archaeological evidence from the Middle East indicates domestication of the pig occurred as early as __________ years ago.
  47. Archeology has found evidence that sheep have been domesticated for _________ years. 
  48. What breed of hair sheep originated in Texas?
  49. Animals that through selection and breeding have come to resemble one another and pass those traits uniformly to their offspring are defined as:
    a breed 
  50. Meat provides about what percent of the animal protein consumed in the world?
  51. Which breed of swine does not have a predominant red color?
    Poland China 
  52. Which breed of swine developed in the United States originated in the state of New York/New Jersey?
  53. Nutrients, which an animal can synthesize for growth and maintenance, are in a category called:
    non-essential nutrients 
  54. Which animals cannot synthesize all of the required amino acids?
  55. Vitamins that are not stored in the body and need to be consumed everyday are:
    water soluble vitamins 
  56. Organic compounds, which are the building blocks in the formation of proteins, are: 
    amino acids 
  57. What is the basic energy feed used in hog rations? 
  58. Feed additives in swine rations that control internal parasites are:
  59. The recommended protein percent of a grower ration for swine from weaning to 75
    pounds is:
  60. Which of the following vitamins is in the category of water-soluble? 
    Vitamin B 
  61. Which of the following minerals is categorized as a macro mineral?
  62. Wheat bran and animal fat are feed concentrates that are classified as:
    processing by-products 
  63. Which protein concentrate is limited to use by ruminants? 
  64. Feedstuffs such as hay and silage are classified as:
  65. A complex protein produced by living cells that causes changes in other substances in the body without being changed itself and without becoming a part of the product is a(n):
  66. Amino acids are the building blocks of:
  67. Feed that is provided to young animals as an extra ration and is fed in an area that is inaccessible to the mothers is called a:
    creep feed 
  68. Vitamins that are stored in the body and need not be consumed everyday are: 
    fat soluble 
  69. What feedstuff contributes most of the carbohydrates in swine rations? 
  70. The ability to initiate, sustain, and support reproduction. 
  71. Which of the following vitamins is in the category of water-soluble?
    Vitamin C 
  72. How well an animal likes or accepts a feed is referred to as the: 
  73. What is the most important nutrient in a swine ration? 
  74. The total protein contained in a feed is ________ protein.
  75. Which of the following minerals is a trace mineral?
  76. Which of the following elements is not a component of a carbohydrate?
  77. Fats and oils provide _________ times more energy than do carbohydrates,
  78. An  essential or non-essential element or compound in a food or feed is a(n): 
  79. Which of the following feeds is highest in total digestible nutrients (TDN)? 
  80. Which feed uses fermentation in order to increase palatability? 
  81. The largest compartment of the ruminant stomach is the: 
  82. Feed additives used to prevent disease and promote growth are:
  83. Rations formulated to keep an animal at its current weight and size is a _________ ration. 
  84. The feed component containing the most easily digested carbohydrates is the: 
    nitrogen free extract 
  85.  Which of the following is NOT required on a feed tag?
    price per CWT 
  86. Which of the following is water-soluble vitamin? 
    pantothenic acid 
  87. A single stomach animal can synthesize ________ of the 22 required amino acids. 
  88. Ruminant animals can synthesize ________ of the 22 required amino acids. 
  89. Swine are in a class of animals that consume both plants and meat known as:
  90. Calves younger than 3 months of age sold for slaughter are: 
  91. The average feed conversion ratio for beef cattle on full feed is:
  92. The first milk produced by a ewe after giving birth is known as: 
  93. The physical appearance of an animal is known as: 
  94. The removal of the testicles from a male animal is: 
  95. Feeder calves classed as yearlings usually weigh:
    550 to 700 lbs 
  96. The critical stage of production in livestock when giving birth to their offspring is: 
  97. The secretion and production of milk in sheep, cattle and swine is known as:
  98. The first milk produced by a cow after giving birth is known as:
  99. The degree to which the crossbred offspring out performs its purebred parents is
    hybrid vigor 
  100. An animal that has extremely straight hind legs is best described as being: 
  101. A method of animal identification that uses very low temperature to change pigment color of the skin is:
    freeze brand 
  102. The gestation time for cattle is: 
    283 days 
  103. . Which trait has the highest heritability estimate in cattle? 
    post weaning rate of gain 
  104. The average age of puberty in sheep is: 
    6 months 
  105. A cattle producer that produces breeding stock including bulls and females for cow-calf operations is commonly called a:
  106. The most important factor when formulating a ration for livestock is:
    total digestive nutrients 
  107. The gestation time for sheep is: 
    148 days 
  108. Heifers most commonly reach puberty at the average age of
    7 months 
  109. Estrus in cattle usually occurs every: 
    21 days 
  110. EPD stands for: 
    expected progeny difference 
  111. A market where cattle are sold by public bidding, with the animals going to the highest bidder is known as a(n):
    auction market 
  112. In swine, a male that has been castrated before reaching sexual maturity is called a:
  113. A system that is used for trading contracts for future delivery of cattle is known as:
    futures market 
  114. In 1985, a one dollar per head checkoff for every head of beef sold in the United States was established as a result of the passage of the:
    Beef Promotion and Research Act 
  115. The process of placing sperm in the female reproductive tract by some other means than natural mating is known as:
    artificial insemination
  116. The process of preparing calves for the stress of being moved into the feedlot is called: 
  117. The rate or percentage of animals becoming pregnant. 
    conception rate
  118. The removal of all or part of the tail from sheep is referred to as: 
  119. A method of animal identification that is a puncture in the skin of numbers or letters is known as:
  120. A selective form of breeding in which the sire and dam are related which some refer to as a mild form of inbreeding is called: 
  121. The average daily gain for growing cattle on full feed. 
    3 lb/day 
  122. Which of the following traits is considered undesirable when judging market lambs?
    early maturing 
  123. Cattle are in a class of animals which consume only plant products known as: 
  124. The gestation time for swine is: 
    114 days 
  125. When evaluating swine performance data, litter weights are adjusted to a standard of how many days?
    21 days 
  126. The most common swine identification system is: 
    ear notching 
  127. The mating of animals of different family lines within the same breed is:
    • outcrossing
  128. The testes produce sperm cells and the male sex hormone: 
  129. The age at which an animal reaches sexual maturity is:
  130. The length of the estrus cycle for a ewe is: 
    14 to 20 days 
  131. The estrus cycle in swine occurs:
    every 21 days 
  132. The process of taking food nutrients through the intestinal wall is: 
  133. The reflex and response that an animal has at birth is
  134. The normal body temperature of sheep and swine is
    Above 102 oF
  135. Sheep and cattle both have multiple stomachs referred to as a(n): 
  136. The growth and development of animals prior to birth
  137. A permanent change in the genotype of an offspring from that of its parents.
  138. An impairment that affects the performance of the vital life functions. 
  139. The most common sheep identification system is:
    ear tags 
  140. What hormone is produced primarily by the ovaries in female animals? 
  141. Cattle have how many pairs of chromosomes? 
  142. The use of living organisms or their products (livestock production) is also known as:
  143. External fat on a lamb carcass is measured between which two ribs?
    12 & 13 
  144. The tube that carries air to an animal’s lungs.
  145. The use of liquid nitrogen for storage of semen and embryos.  
  146.  The expected yield of a hog with a USDA quality grade of No. 1 is:
    60.4% or greater 
  147. The most important wholesale cut of lamb is:
  148. The age of the beef animal and the amount of marbling in the carcass affect the
     ________ of the carcass.
    quality grade 
  149. The amount of fat cover on a market lamb is referred to as: 
  150. When evaluating sheep, the term that refers to ruggedness and stamina is: 
  151. Cattle that are generally between six months and one year old and are sold to people who fatten them for market are commonly referred to as:
    feeder cattle 
  152. Cattle can generally lose from 1 to 5 percent of their weight when transported. The loss of weight that occurs when cattle are moved to market is referred to as:
  153. The expected yield of a hog with an USDA quality grade of No. 2 is: 
    57.4 to 60.3% 
  154. The amount of fat cover on a market steer is referred to as:
  155. Which of the following wholesale cuts of beef has the highest value?
  156. The weight of a chilled beef carcass compared to the live weight of the animal is referred
    to as:
  157. An animal’s central nervous system includes the brain and:
    spinal cord 
  158. The leg and loin of a lamb are the primary wholesale meat cuts that come from the:
  159. Fat present in muscle tissue is known as:
  160. The average dressing percentage of a steer grading choice is:
  161. The swine trait having the highest heritability estimate is:
    carcass length 
  162. When using sonoray to evaluate breeding swine, the two measurements taken are backfat thickness and:
    loin-eye area
  163. A male sheep castrated before reaching sexual maturity is called a: 
  164. In a swine carcass, the loin is about ________ percent of the total carcass. 
  165. The genetic makeup of an animal is called its:
  166. Fistulated cattle are use primarily for ______________ studies and research.
  167. Angus and Hereford cattle originated from the species:
    Bos taurus 
  168. Which country accounts for the highest percent of the world cattle population? 
  169. Which of the following countries has the greatest number of hogs? 
  170. Which of the following countries produces the most sheep?
  171. A disorder characterized by gas distention in
    the rumen, seen on the animal’s left side is
    commonly referred to as:
  172. A medication sprayed directly into the animal’s nostrils is called a __________ injection.
  173. Newborn animals receive immunity to diseases by drinking
  174. Administering an medicinal agent to livestock that requires placement directly into the bloodstream is a(n) ___________ injection.
  175. Subcutaneous injections are given: 
    under the skin 
  176. A swine disease causing degeneration of the turbinate bones in the snout and the twisting of the snout is:
  177. The biggest problem of raising sheep is the loss caused by: 
    internal parasites  
  178. The most common parasites affecting beef cattle are:
  179. Medications used to produce immunity in livestock that are derived from plasma and fibrinogen removed from blood are:
  180. Administering a medical agent to livestock that requires placement into the skin is a(n)
    _________ injection.
  181. Disease caused by an organism that mainly affects the lungs.
  182. Diseases caused by a virus or bacteria are classed as: 
  183. A nutritional problem characterized by a swollen abdomen on the left side, labored breathing, profuse salivation, groaning, lack of appetite, and stiffness.
  184. Helminths are of major economic importance to the livestock industry in regard to the management of:
    internal parasites 
  185. A disease carried by insects that affect the eyes of cattle is: 
  186. A nutritional problem in cattle characterized by swelling of the tissue that attaches the hoof to the foot and lameness of the animal.
  187. Which of the following swine health problems is caused by a nutritional deficiency?
  188. The normal body temperature of cattle is:
  189. When animals band together in a herd or flock, the behavior is known as:
  190. What area of livestock production is the major issue of animal rights organizations?
  191. Morphological defects in livestock are caused by:
  192.  A disease that affects cattle and sheep with symptoms of lameness, followed by depression and fever, followed by swelling in the muscles of the hip, shoulder, chest. Back, and neck, with sudden death within 3 days of the onset of the symptoms is:
  193. Tetanus is a __________ disease. 
  194. Cholera is a __________ disease.
  195. Proteins produced by an animal’s immune system in response to invasion by bacteria, viruses, or parasites are:
  196. About _______ percent of total income from all livestock marketing in the United States comes from the beef industry?
  197. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of raising beef?  

    A. efficient conversion of concentrate feeds into meat
    B. death losses are usually low
    C. high demand for meat
    D. beef adapt to either small or large operations
    A. efficient conversion of concentrate feeds into meat
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  198. The United States is divided into _____ cattle-raising regions.
  199. Name the breed of cattle which the United States Congress appropriated money in 1927 because they were almost extinct.
    Texas Longhorn 
  200. Which breed of cattle were called Durhams when they originated around 1600?
  201. Which breed of white colored swine originated in Pennsylvania? 
    Chester White 
  202. The ____________ breed of swine can be traced to the early 1700’s? 
  203. Most swine purebred associations require several items of information for the registration of individual hogs. Which information is NOT required?
    Weaning Weight 
  204.  The Pietrain breed of swine originated in ____________. 
  205. The most common classification of sheep is by:
    Type of wool 
  206. Fine Wool breeds of sheep include all of the following EXCEPT:
  207. The majority of medium wool breeds of sheep originated in
  208. Cotswold sheep are classified as:  
     Long Wool 
  209. The state having the highest population of sheep and lambs is: 
  210. Which of the following medium wool breeds of sheep are solid white in color?
  211. Sheep are a major enterprise in the _________ area of the United States.
  212. The amount of ammoniacal nitrogen in a feed multiplied by 6.25 is the ____________ content of a feed.
    crude protein 
  213. The male bovine of any age that has not been castrated.
  214. Pigs must be ear notched for _______________, which is necessary for good record keeping.
  215. Two factors that have a major influence on profitability in swine production are
    Number of pigs weaned per sow; feed efficiency 
  216. Swine dysentery is also known as: 
    Bloody scours d. 
  217. The sudden death of heavily muscled hogs is referred to as ____________. 
    porcine stress syndrome 
  218. A condition caused by a lack of sugar in the diet:
  219. ____________ is a disease that affects the tissue of the foot in sheep.
    Foot Rot 
  220. Anthrax is a disease caused by bacteria that may remain in the soil for ______ years or longer.
  221. Pinkeye is a disease in cattle that is carried by _____________. 
  222. Brisket disease affects the ________ in cattle.
  223. ___________ occurs when the breakdown of carbohydrates by enzymes in the rumen is too rapid.
  224. __________ are growths on the skin of cattle caused by a virus.
  225. Accelerated lambing is a system that produces ___________________ lamb crops in two years. 
  226. Lambs are commonly weaned at about ________________ months of age. 
  227. __________________ is the practice of feeding a ration for ten days to two weeks before breeding.
  228. Range production accounts for __________ percent of the total sheep production in the United States.
  229. What is the only breed of sheep raised for fur in the United States?
  230. The traditionally recommended weight for selling slaughter hogs has been _____________. 
    200-220 pounds 
  231. Baby pigs require temperatures of ______________ degrees F. 
  232. Solid floors in hog houses are usually made of ___________.
  233. Many of the odor problems from confinement operations are related to the release of
    ___________ from manure.
  234. Pigs must be ear notched for _____________, which is necessary for good record keeping. 
  235. A visual evaluation of the amount of muscle on a hog is best seen by looking at the ____________ view of the hog.
  236. Yearlings are feeder calves between one and two years old weighing about ____________ pounds.
  237. Feed efficiency can be increased by _____________ grain because less is wasted.
  238. During cold weather, cattle feed should be increased by what percent for each degree of cold stress?
  239. A _______________ animal is one that is of a particular breed. 
  240. What is a common disqualification in rules for registering animals in a breed association? 
    color markings 
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Livestock Judging CDE Test Questions!
Practice Exam Key for the Texas FFA Livestock CDE
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