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  1. nonmelanomas _______ have higher mortality rates than melanomas
    do not
  2. The most common cancer type overall in the United States is ____________ skin cancer
  3. _____________are usually tan or black in color
  4. In late stage disease, __________ tend to ulcerate and have a rolled border on examination
  5. ___________ are not usually treated with radiation because they are radioresistent
  6. Control rates for stage 1 basal cell carcinoma are approximately  ___%
  7. Clark method for classifying melanoma is based on _____________
    Depth in invasion
  8. write 3 statements appropriate for increasing public awareness reguarding the precentage of skin cancer
    • pay attention to any new or existing skin markings
    • avoid excessive exposure to uv light
    • early diagnosis & early treatment is  important
  9. List 3 functions of the skin
    regulation of body temperature

    barrier between the body and the enviroment

    provides receptors for stimuli like heat, cold and touch
  10. Epstein-barr virus is an etiologic factor for ______________
    skin cancer
  11. Melanocytes are found in the ____ layer of the skin
  12. Cells most sensitive to radiation are located in which layer of the epidermis?
    stratum basale
  13. Frequent visits to the tanning bed increases risk of developing _______________
    skin cancer
  14. Nonmelanoma type skin cancer are not usually seen in children. One possible reason is:
    Nonmelanomas are a result of long term exposure to UV rays
  15. Lentigo maligna is a histologic type of melanoma characterized by
    Growth in a radical pattern with a tan or black color
  16. What role does immunotherapy play in the management of melanoma?
    Immunotherapy attempts to take advantage of this response and gives the immune system a boost to help fight the disease
  17. List the expected side effects of radiation therapy for non melanoma skin cancers
    • Typical fx: 40-50 Gy total  (2 Gy fx's)
    • Erythema @ 20Gy
    • Dry Desquamation @ 30 Gy
    • Wet Desquamation @ 40 Gy
  18. depth of invasion 4 cm
    Pxd dose 90%

    What electron energy?
    16 mEv
  19. A patient has a non melanoma located on the lower eyelid. Discuss positioning & field arrangements.
    • Electron therapy with careful protection of the lens
    • Full internal eye shield could be inserted & field shaping by thin lead cut out placed directly on the skin
    • Likely, the lesion is small enough to be covered by an extendable, round Lucite cone.
    • Combination of couch & gantry angle to achieve parallel relationship between the surface & horizontal axis of the beam
  20. When a lesion on the external surface of the nose is treated, a lead shield should be placed into the nostril. Breifly explain why
    The lead shield protects the underlying mucosa from residual radiation. Wax behind the shield will further protect the mucosa closest to the septum, from secondary radiation from electron/lead interaction
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