Anatomy Ch.1 1 of 2

  1. Microscopic anatomy: (pg 2)
    considers structures that cannot be seen without magnification.The boundaries of microscopic anatomy, or fine anatomy, are establishedby the limits of the equipment used.
  2. Cytology: (pg 2)
    analyzesthe internal structure of cells, the smallest units of life. Living cells are composed of complex chemicals in various combinations, and our lives dependon the chemical processes occurring in the trillions of cells that formour body.
  3. Histology: (pg 2)
    takes a broader perspective and examines tissues, groups of specialized cells and cell products that work together to performspecific functions. The cells in the human body can be assigned to four basictissue types, and these tissues are the focus of Chapter 3
  4. organs: (pg 2)
    Tissues in combination form organs such as the heart, kidney, liver, andbrain. Organs are anatomical units that have multiple functions. Many tissuesand most organs are examined easily without a microscope, and at this point wecross the boundary from microscopic anatomy into gross anatomy
  5. Gross anatomy (pg 2)
    • or macroscopic anatomy, considers relatively large structuresand features visible to the unaided eye. There are many ways to approach gross anatomy:
    • ● Surface anatomy
    • ● Regional anatomy
    • ● Systemic anatomy
  6. Surface anatomy (pg 2)
    refers to the study of general form, or morphology, and superficialanatomical markings.
  7. Regional anatomy: (pg 2)
    considers all of the superficial and internal features ina specific area of the body, such as the head, neck, or trunk. Advancedcourses in anatomy often stress a regional approach because it emphasizesthe spatial relationships among structures.
  8. Systemic anatomy: (pg 2)
    considers the structure of major organ systems, such asthe skeletal or muscular systems. Organ systems are groups of organs thatfunction together to produce coordinated effects. For example, the heart,blood, and blood vessels form the cardiovascular system, which distributesoxygen and nutrients throughout the body. There are 11 organ systems inthe human body, and they will be introduced later in the chapter. Introductorytexts in anatomy, including this one, use a systemic approach becauseit provides a framework for organizing information about important structuraland functional patterns.
  9. Developmental anatomy: (pg 2)
    examines the changes in form that occur duringthe period between conception and physical maturity. Because it considersanatomical structures over such a broad range of sizes (from a single cell toan adult human), developmental anatomy involves the study of both microscopicand gross anatomy. Developmental anatomy is important inmedicine because many structural abnormalities can result from errorsthat occur during development. The most extensive structural changes occurduring the first two months of development. Embryology is the study of these early developmental processes.
  10. Embryology: (pg 2)
    is the study of these early developmental processes.
  11. Comparative anatomy: (pg 2)
    considers the anatomical organization of differenttypes of animals. Observed similarities may reflect evolutionary relationships.Humans, lizards, and sharks are all called vertebrates because theyshare a combination of anatomical features that is not found in any othergroup of animals. All vertebrates have a spinal column composed of individualelements called vertebrae (Figure 1.2a). Comparative anatomy usestechniques of gross, microscopic, and developmental anatomy.
  12. Clinical anatomy: (pg 2)
    focuses on anatomical features that may undergo recognizablepathological changes during illness
  13. Surgical anatomy: (pg 2)
    studies anatomical landmarks important for surgicalprocedures
  14. The Study of Anatomy at Different Scales (pg 3)
    • Approximate factor           size (m)   X scale
    • Human body                    1.7           X .15
    • Human Heart                   120mm     X .12
    • Finger tip (width)             12mm       X .6
    • Large protozoan               .5mm        X 20
    • Human oocyle                  120um      X  83
    • Red blood cell                   10um       X  103
    • Bacteria                           1-12um    X  103
    • Mitochondrion                   2um         X 103 
    • Virusess                           10-20nm   X 105
    • Ribosomes                        11nm       X  106 
    • Proteins                            8-10 nm   X  106
    • DNA (diameter)                 2nm         X  106
    • Amino acids                      1nm          X  107 Atoms                              .1nm         X  108
  15. Radiographic anatomy (pg 5)
    involves the study of anatomical structures as theyare visualized by x-rays, ultrasound scans, or other specialized proceduresperformed on an intact body.
  16. Cross-sectional anatomy (pg 5)
    has emerged as a new subspecialty of gross anatomyas newadvances in radiographic anatomy, suchasCT(computerized tomography)and spiral scans, have emerged.
  17. homeostasis (pg 5)
    When systems are functioning normally, the characteristics of the internal environment will be relatively stable at all levels.This vital state of affairs is called homeostasis homeo, unchanging + stasis, standing).
  18. Responsiveness (pg 7)
    Organisms respond to changes in their immediate environment;this property is also called irritability. You move your hand awayfrom a hot stove; your dog barks at approaching strangers; fish are scaredby loud noises; and amoebas glide toward potential prey. Organisms alsomake longer-lasting changes as they adjust to their environments. For example,as winter approaches, an animal may grow a heavier coat or migrateto a warmer climate. The capacity to make such adjustments is termedad aptability.
  19. Growth and Differentiation (pg 7)
    Over a lifetime, organisms grow larger, increasingin size through an increase in the size or number of their cells. Inmulticellular organisms, the individual cells become specialized to performparticular functions. This specialization is called differentiation. Growthand differentiation in cells and organisms often produce changes in formand function. For example, the anatomical proportions and physiologicalcapabilities of an adult human are quite different from those of an infant
  20. Reproduction (pg 7)
    Organisms reproduce, creating subsequent generations oftheir own kind, whether unicellular or multicellular.
  21. Movement (pg 7)
    Organisms are capable of producing movement, which maybe internal (transporting food, blood, or other materials inside the body)or external (moving through the environment).
  22. Metabolism and Excretion (pg 7)
    Organisms rely on complex chemical reactionsto provide energy for responsiveness, growth, reproduction, andmovement. They must also synthesize complex chemicals, such as proteins.The term metabolism refers to all the chemical operations underway in the body: Catabolism is the breakdown of complex molecules intosimple ones, and anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules fromsimple ones. Normal metabolic operations require the absorption of materialsfrom the environment. To generate energy efficiently, most cellsrequire various nutrients, as well as oxygen, an atmospheric gas. The term respiration refers to the absorption, transport, and use of oxygenby cells. Metabolic operations often generate unneeded or potentiallyharmful waste products that must be removed through the process of excretion.
  23. Introduction to Organ Sysytem (pg 7)
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  24. respiration (pg 7)
    refers to the absorption, transport, and use of oxygenby cells.
  25. excretion: (pg 7)
    Metabolic operations often generate unneeded or potentiallyharmful waste products that must be removed through the process of excretion.
  26. Integumentary System (pg 8)
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  27. The Skeletal System (pg 8)
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  28. The Muscular System (pg 9)
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  29. The Nervous System (pg 8)
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  30. The Endocrine System (pg 9)
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  31. The Cardiovascular System (pg 9)
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  32. The Lymphoid System (pg 10)
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  33. The Respiratory System (pg 10)
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  34. The Digestive System (pg 12)
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  35. The Urinary System (pg 12)
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  36. The Male Reproductive System (pg 13)
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  37. The Female Reproductive System (pg 13)
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  38. Digestion: (pg 14)
    Is a process that occurs in specialized areas where complex foods are broken down into simpler componentsthat can be absorbed easily.
  39. brachium (pg 14)
    refers to the arm, and later chapters discuss the brachialis muscle and branches of the brachial artery.
  40. anatomical position (pg 14)
    Standard anatomical illustrations show the human form in the anatomical position. In the anatomical position, the person stands with the legs togetherand the feet flat on the floor. The hands are at the sides, and the palms face forward.
  41. Anatomical Landmarks (pg 15)
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Card Set
Anatomy Ch.1 1 of 2
Anatomy Ch.1 Introduction/foundation, sdccd, definitions examples, etc.BIO-230: Text book: HUMAN ANATOMY 7th edition. By: Martini/ Timmons/ Tallitsch