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  1. surface-to-volume ratio
    A relationship in which the volume of an object increases with the cube of the diameter, but the surface area increases with the square.
  2. adhesion protein
    Membrane protein that helps cells stick together in tissues.
  3. enzyme
    Molecule that speeds a chemical process without being changed by it.
  4. fluid mosaic model
    A cell membrane can be considered a two-dimensional fluid of mixed composition.
  5. receptor protein
    Plasma membrane protein that binds to a particular substance outside of the cell.
  6. recognition protein
    Plasma membrane protein that tags a cell as belonging to self (one’s own body).
  7. transport protein
    Protein that passively or actively assists specific ions or molecules across a membrane.
  8. pilus
    A protein filament that projects from the surface of some bacterial cells.
  9. ribosome
    Organelle of protein synthesis.
  10. endomembrane system
    Series of interacting organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, vesicles) between nucleus and plasma membrane; produces lipids, proteins.
  11. endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
    Organelle that is a continuous system of sacs and tubes; extension of the nuclear envelope. Rough ER is studded with ribosomes; smooth ER is not.
  12. Golgi body
    Organelle that modifies polypeptides and lipids; also sorts and packages finished products into vesicles.
  13. lysosome
    Enzyme-filled vesicle that functions in intracellular digestion.
  14. mitochondrion
    Double-membraned organelle that produces ATP.
  15. nuclear envelope
    A double membrane that constitutes the outer boundary of the nucleus.
  16. peroxisome
    Enzyme-filled vesicle that breaks down amino acids, fatty acids, and toxic substances.
  17. vacuole
    A fluid-filled organelle that isolates or disposes of waste, debris, or toxic materials.
  18. vesicle
    Small, membrane-enclosed, saclike organelle; different kinds store, transport, or degrade their contents.
  19. cilium
    Short, movable structure that projects from the plasma membrane of some eukaryotic cells.
  20. cytoskeleton
    Dynamic framework of protein fi laments that support, organize, and move eukaryotic cells and their internal structures.
  21. intermediate filament
    Cytoskeletal element that locks cells and tissues together.
  22. microfilament
    Reinforcing cytoskeletal element; fiber of actin subunits.
  23. microtubule
    Cytoskeletal element involved in movement; hollow filament of tubulin subunits.
  24. motor protein
    Type of energy-using protein that interacts with cytoskeletal elements to move the cell’s parts or the whole cell.
  25. pseudopod
    Extendable lobe of membrane-enclosed cytoplasm.
  26. adhering junction
    Cell junction that anchors cells to each other or to extracellular matrix.
  27. cell junction
    Structure that connects a cell to another cell or to extracellular matrix.
  28. extracellular matrix (ECM) Complex mixture of substances secreted by cells; supports cells and tissues; roles in cell signaling.
  29. Gap junction
    Cell junction that forms a channel across the plasma membranes of adjoining animal cells.
  30. tight junctions
    Arrays of fibrous proteins; join epithelial cells and collectively prevent fluids from leaking between them.
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