The sum of the processes involved in the taking in of nutrients and using them for proper function, growth and health.
A substance that provides nourishment and affects metabolic processes such as cell growth and repair. The body can actually produce this in adequate amounts, makine suppliments unneccessary.
A substance that is either produced inadeqately by the body or not produced at all.
A. Essential Nutrient
Nutrients that have small calorie value, they are referred to as the "no calorie" group. Despite the low level required for health, defieciency is very common in people. Vitamins, minerals and water all fall in this category.
Nutrients that are required in relatively large quantities. These provide the majority of the body's energy through calories and are referred to as the "calorie group". Included in this group are Proteins, Carbohydrates and Fats.
Composed of chains of amino acids and considered the main building blocks of the body, this macronutrient composes choromosomes, hormones, enzymes and cell membranes in the body. They also help build and repair tissues, blood and form antibodies to fight infection.
Which of the following is not a good source of Protein?
A. Peas, Potatoes Spinach
There are two types of Protiens; Complete and Incomplete. The incomplete needs and combining element to be considered complete that it cannot get on its own. Example of this below is:
C. Beans and Rice
Nutrient that is also known as saccharides, or sugar. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. (CHO). The different types are distinguished by their complexity. It is known as the most common source of energy for the body and require the least amount of water to digest.
A subgroup of lipids called triglycerides, this nutrient are composed of three fatty acids and a glycerol molecule. Can be considered unsatruated and saturated. Can be an energy source, but they act more as the body's reserve fuel and protect and insulate the body.
Which of the following is not a good source of Carbohydrates?
A. Chicken Breasts, Shrimp and Soy
What is not a good source of Fats?
A. Partially Hydrogentated plant oil (Crisco)
Important group of nutrients, they are essential for metabolic reactions in the body. They are either soluable by water or fat. They regulate metabolic processes by acting as catalysts in chemical reactions and coenzymes (transporters) and carry chemical groups in the cell.
Vital in regulating many body functions, this nutrients are chemical elements required by living organisms. They are all nonorganic compounds found in nature and are devided into two categories: macro (bulk) and micro (trace).
Considered the most important nutrient, this regulates body temperature and transports all the other nutrients being the fact the body is made up mostly of it.
Another nutrient, or roughage, is found in the walls of plant cells. It is essential to human health even though the enzymes in the digestive tract cannot break it down, causing digestion to slow and the person to feel fuller.
One of the vitamins of the Vitamin B complex, this vitamin promotes proper heart function and helps convert carbohydrates and fat into energy. Good source would be pork, whole grains, spinach and wheat germ. A deficiency would cause beriberi.
B. B1 (Thiamine)
One of the vitamins of the Vitamin B complex, this vitamin promotes red blood cell formation and helps prevent cataracts. Good sources are asparagus, organ meats, milk, yogurt, almonds and soybeans. is very delicate and without proper storage, can be destroyed by light or heat. Deficiency can cause ariboflavinosis.
D. B2 (Riboflavin)
One of the vitamins of the Vitamin B complex, this vitamin promotes adrenal gland production, assisting in expelling toxins, and helps maintain muscle tone. Good sources include beets, chicken, turkey, veal, salmon, tuna, sunflower seeds and peanuts. A deficiency can cause pellagra.
B. B3 (Niacin)
One of the vitamins of the Vitamin B complex, this vitamin is found in all living cells, promoting red blood cell production, aids in the breakdown of fats and carbohydrates for energy and helps maintain a healthy digestive tract. Good source includes brewer's yeast, corn, tomatoes, egg yolks, beef, duck, sweet potatoes, whole grains and lobster. Defienciency is rare but can lead to fatugue, insomnia, stomach pains and URI's.
A. B5 (Pantothenic Acid)
One of the vitamins of the Vitamin B complex, this vitamin promotes healthy nerve and brain function, aids in production of DNA and RNA, and helps the proper absorption of B12 vitamin. Good sources include brown rice, whole grain flour, bran, shrimp, lentils, fish and nuts. Deficiency symptoms would include muscle weakness, depression, nervousness, and short-term memory loss.
B. B6 (Pridoxine)
One of the vitamins of the Vitamin B complex, this vitamin aids in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and amino acids. Good sources include brewer's yeast, organ meats, nut butters, soybeans, legumes and cooked eggs (raw egg whites can interfere with absorption). Defiency is rare but symptoms can include hair loss, dry scaly skin and cracking corners of mouth.
B. B7 (Biotin, Vitamin H)
One of the vitamins of the Vitamin B complex, this vitamin aids in production of DNA and RNA and is crucial for proper brain development and function. Is the most common of the B vitamin defiencies and can cause poor growth, gingivities and in pregrancy can cause birth defects such as Spina Bifida, cleft palate and brain damage. Good sources include spinach, whole grains, orange juice, wheat germ, asparagus, salmon, avocado, root vegetables and milk.
D. B9 (Folic Acid)
One of the vitamins of the Vitamin B complex, this vitamin promotes proper iron function and regulates red blood cell formation. Deficiency may cause anemia and congnitive decline. Vegetarians are often at a higher risk for deficiency as good sources are fish, dairy, organ meats, eggs, beed and pork.
A. B12 (Cobalamin)
Also known as Ascorbic Acid, this vitamin acts as an antioxidant, helping the body resist infection, promotes adrenal gland function, aids in collagen production and can reduce high blood pressure and cholesterol. A defiency can cause scurvy. Good sources include citrus fruits, strawberries, broccoli and sweet red peppers.
B. Vitamin C
Also known as Cholecalciferol, this vitamin promotes bone development, helps absorb and metabolize calcium and aids the immune system. A deficiency can cause rickets and lead to osteoporisis. Good sources for this include fortified milk, fish liver oils, and sun exposure (helps skin to synthesize it)
B. Vitamin D
Also know as Tocopherol, this vitamin acts as a powerful antioxidant, repairs tissues, reduces blood pressure, promotes sperm development, helps prevent cataracts and increases maternal circulation during pregnancy. Deficiency symptoms include muscle weakness, impaired vision and unsteady gait. Good sources include almonds, peanuts, sunflower seeds, spinach, avocado, oils (wheat germ, safflower) and carrot juice.
B. Vitamin E
This vitamin aids in blood clotting and maintains bone health. Bacteria found in the instestines produce this vitamin. Deficiency is rare and may lead to hemorrhaging. Good sources include beef liver, green tea, spinach, dark green lettuce, asparagus, broccoli and kale.
D. Vitamin K
Considered the most abundant bulk mineral in the body, this mineral supports the development and maintenance of strong bones and teeth and promotes heart, nerve and muscle function. The properly function, this mineral needs other nutrients, such as Vitamin D. A deficiency of this mineral can contribute to osteoporosis, hair loss and seizures. Good source include milk, cheese, ice cream, yogurt, broccoli, almonds and swiss chard.
C. Calcium (Ca)
Essential for proper kidney function, this mineral also supports normal heart function and aids digestion. Considered a realitvely delicate bulk mineral, it relies on the balance of many other nutrients to maintain proper levels. Excessive amounts of sodium, coffee or alcahol may deplete it, leading to a deficiency, or hypokalemia. Symptoms are weakness and lack of energy and muscle cramps.
D. Potassium (K)
Attaching to the hemoglobin in red blood cells thereby delivering oxygen to the tissues, this mineral is the most abundant tract mineral in the body. A deficiency can lead to anemia, causing weakness and fatigue. Excessive may lead to toxicity, which can cause diabetes and liver damage. Good sources include liver, lean red meat, fish, poultry, oysters, whole grains, dried beans, legumes and fortified breads and cereals.
B. Iron (Fe)
Essential for normal growth and development and supporting most aspects of reproduction, this mineral acts as an antioxidant promoting the immune system and helps regulate appetite, taste and smell. It is the second most abundant trace mineral and stored primarily in muscle tissue, although high concentrations exist in the blood and male prostrate gland. Protein helps absorb it, hence animal product and the best source for it including oysters, red meats, poultry, cheese, shellfish, legumes whole grains and mushrrooms. Defiencey may cause skin abnormalities such as psoriasis, impaired sense of smell.
D. Zinc (Zn)
The amount of calories equal to one pound is:
The body is made up of what precentage of water:
A unit of measure for the energy you recieve when you eat food and in america is equal heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of water by 1o C.
What is the set calorie value or kilocalorie (kcal) for the macornutrient Fat?
D. 9 kcal
What is the set calorie value or kilocalorie (kcal) for both the macornutrient Protein and Carbohydrate?
C. 4 kcal
The number that represents the energy you expend completely at rest or the caliries you burn just lying in bed all day in called:
C. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Simple sugars such as glucose( blood) , frutose (Fruit) and galactose (milk) are considered:
The union of two simple sugars including sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar) and maltose (malt sugar) is called.
Carbohydrates containing three or more simple sugar molecules such as dextrins, glycogen (stored glucose), cellulose and gums.