fungal disease

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  1. which of th efollowing is the most common fungal infection in the united states?
    1. coccidiodomycosis
    2. histoplasmosis
    3. san Joaquin valley disease
    4. blastomycosis
    2. histoplasmosis
  2. incidence of histoplasmosis is especially high in which of the following area(s)?
    1. arizona
    2. mississippi
    3. nevada
    4. texas
    2. mississippi
  3. the condtion called desert bumps, desert arthritis, or desert rheumatism is associated with which fungal disorder?
    1. ohio valley fever
    2. blastomycosis
    3. coccidiodomycosis
    4. aspergilliosis
    3. coccidiodomycosis
  4. which of the following is or are used to treat fungal disease:
    1. streptomycin
    2. amphotericin B
    3. penicillin G
    4. itracanazole
    d. amphotericin B and itracanazole
  5. which of the following forms of histoplasmosis is characterized by healed lesions in the hilar lymph nodes as well as a positive histoplasmin skin test response?
    1. disseminated infection
    2. latent asymptomatic disease
    3. chronic histoplasmosis
    4. self limiting primary disease
    b. latent asympotomatic disease
  6. a frothy yeast like substance is caused by
    inhaled fungal spores
  7. what comes in and moves into the infected areas to engulf the fungal spores
    polymorponuclear leukocytes and macrophages
  8. rfungal spores ae widely distributed thruout
    1. air
    2. soil
    3. fomites
    4. animals
    all of the above( normal flora for humans)
  9. how many fungal species may be linked to disease in animals
    1. 100
    2. 200
    3. 300
    3. 300
  10. what can be seen in severe cases of fungal disease:

    1. tissue necrosis
    2. granulomas
    3. cavity formation
    all of the above
  11. histoplasma capsulatum source of infection comes from what
    heavy cleaning reffered to as as soil contamanited with bird and bat droppings, old houses (attics), farms (barn, chicken coops
  12. Histoplasmosis
    infection course: true or false
    1. initial phase is controlled by macrophages
    2. spores are inhaled, travel to lymph nodes at hilum and mediastinum, and spreads from lungs, lymph to liver, spleen and marrow
  13. Histoplamisis
    second phase is controlled by cellular immunity  true or false
    1. occurs 10-14 days after spore inhalation
    2. infected sites necrose, caseate, and fibrose
    3. calcified granulomas within few yrs
    4. disseminated infection if cellular immunity defect
  14. who are at risk for disseminated infection
    1. infants and young children
    2. intense exposure to airborne spores
    3. immunocomprimised patients 
    all of the above
  15. when would consider immunocompromised patients:
    1. undifferentiated fever
    2. pneumonia
    3. mucocutaneous disease
    all of the above
  16. endemic areas are
    ohio and Mississippi river valleys
  17. endemic cities are
    Indianapolis, Kansas city, houston
  18. diagnosis in sputum culture requires
    1. 2 mths
    2. 2-6wks growth
    3. 1 day
    2. 2-6 wks growth
  19. skin test diagnosis is 80-90% endemic area will test positive true or false
  20. is it difficult to obtain sputum
    yes because cough is unproductive
  21. fungal stain is how much accurate:
    1. 10%
    2. 50%
    3. 100%
    3. 100% accurate
  22. what are the round thin walled cells called when spores are inhaled, settle in lungs and begin to germinate
    spherules that produce endospores that make more spherules ( they multiply)
  23. what are speric fungi carried by wind borne dust particles called
    coccidioldes immitis which are endemic in hot dry regions such as California Arizona, Nevada, new mexico, texas, Utah therefroe 80% of people in san joanquin valley test positive skin testing
  24.  coccidiodoidomycosis fungus can be isolated from
    soils, plants and large number of vertebrates
  25. if you get thrush (candida albicans) in the mouth what kind of treatment can be used after giving steroid
    nystatin mouthwash
  26. extrapulmonary lesions commonly involve
    1. skin
    2. bones
    3. reproductive tract,
    4. spleen, liver, kidney
    5 prostate gland
    all of the above
  27. Does dissemination cause arthritis and osteomyelitis and involve CNS (headache, convulsions, coma, and mental confusion
  28. symptoms of histoplasmosis involve
    1. non-productive cough
    2. dyspnea
    3. dyspna
    4. headache
    5. malaise
    6. diaphoresis
    7. weight loss
    all of the above
  29. signs of histoplasmos are
    1. hepatomegaly
    2. splenomegaly
    3. adenopathy
    4. erythema nodosum
    5. erythema multiforme
    all of the above
  30. symptoms similar to TB in chronic pulmonary histoplasmosis are
    1. productive cough
    2. fever
    3. night sweats
    4. cavity formation
    all of the above
  31. disseminated histoplasmosis can harm:
    1. 80% immunocompromised
    2. nearly any part of the body
    3. be fatal if untreated
    all of the above
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fungal disease
fungal disease
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