Microbiology Chapter 3

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  1. What are the 2 common shapes of Prokaryotic cells?
    • Spherical- Coccus
    • Cylindrical- Rod or Bacillus ex. E.Coli
  2. Coccobacillus
    A short rod that can be mistaken for a coccus in Prokaryotic cells
  3. What are the 4 less common shapes for Prokaryotic cells?
    • Vibrio-short, curved rod
    • Spirillum-long, curved rod that forms spirals
    • Pleomorphic- bacteria that vary in shape
    • Spirochete- long helical cell with flexible wall, has a unique mechanism for motility
  4. What are the three types of groupings?
    • Chains
    • Packets
    • Clusters
  5. How does a chain form?
    When a cell divides in 1 plane
  6. How does a packet form?
    When a cell divides in 2+ planes perpendicular to one another
  7. How do clusters form?
    When a cell divides in several planes at random
  8. What aspect of bacterial cell division determines the characteristic cell arrangements?
    The plane in which the cell divides
  9. What is a diplococci?
    • A cocci that typically occurs in pairs
    • ex. Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  10. What is a myxobacteria look like?
    a flower
  11. What is a biofilm?
    communities in which surface bacteria lives
  12. What encompasses the Prokaryotic Cell?
    • Cell Envelope
    • Cytoplasm
    • cytosol
    • Nucleoid
  13. What is the cell envelope?
    cytoplasmic membrane, cell wall, and capsule
  14. What is the cytoplasm?
    viscous material within the envelope
  15. What is the cytosol?
    The fluid portion of the cytoplasm
  16. What is the Nucleoid?
    gelatinous region where genetic material resides
  17. What is the size of a Prokaryotic Cell, and why?
    • Small size, large surface area with a low volume
    • Allows for quick nutrient uptake and waste secretion
  18. How much can a light microscope magnify?
  19. How much can an electron microscope magnify?
  20. What does an atomic force microscope do?
    Produces images of individual atoms on a surface
  21. What are the two types of electron microscopes?
    • TEM- Transmission Electron microscope
    • Sem- Scanning microscope
  22. What is a TEM?
    • Transmission Electron Microscope
    • High powered pictures of inside of cell
  23. What is a SEM
    • Scanning Microscope
    • Used for surface details
    • gives 3D effect
  24. What are the 2 most common types of morphologies for Prokaryotic cells?
    • Coccus: Spherical
    • Bacillus: cylindrical, rod
  25. What are the four less common morphologies of Prokaryotic cells?
    • Vibrio- comma shape
    • Spirillum-loose spiral
    • Spirochete- cork screw
    • Pleomorphic- non-rigid cell wall, many shapes
  26. What does strepto- mean
  27. What does Sarcina mean?
    Cubical packet
  28. What does Staphylo mean?
  29. What does diplo mean
  30. What is an example of multicellular associations?
  31. What is a myxobacteria?
    • Multicellular association that releases enzymes nad degrades organic material
    • flowers
  32. What is the difference between a peripheral protein and an integral protein?
    • Peripheral- only on the peripheral of the membrane
    • Integral- Spans the whole membrane
  33. What is Simple Diffusion
    Movement of molecules down their gradient
  34. What is Osmosis?
    • Movement of water down it's gradient 
    • Hypotonic > Hypertonic = isotonic
  35. What is a permeases or carrier?
    Integral proteins that act as a transport system
  36. What is facilitated diffusion
    Molecules move through permeases down their gradient
  37. What is active transport
    • movement of molecules opposite of their gradient
    • uses ATP or Proton motive force
  38. What is Group Translocation
    Permeases chemically alter the compound to move it across a membrane
  39. What is an example of Group Translocation?
  40. What compose Peptidoglycan?
    • N-Acetylmuramic Acid
    • N- Acetylglucosamine
    • Tetrapeptides
  41. What are the characteristics of a Gram-Positive wall?
    • Thick
    • permeable
    • Has Teichoic acids
  42. What are the characteristics of a Gram-Negative cell wall?
    • Thin
    • no teichoic acids
    • has an outer membrane with LPS
    • Periplasm
  43. What is LPS
  44. What is the periplasm?
    • thick area between membranes in gram-negative cell walls
    • thick with proteins
  45. What makes up the LPS
    • Lipid A
    • O Antigen
  46. What is the problem with LPS?
    Large amounts can be deadly
  47. What's the purpose of Lipid A?
    it's the part of the outermembrane that the immune system detects
  48. What's the purpose of O Antigen?
    Used to identify specific bacteria
  49. How does penicillin work?
    • Targets Peptidoglycan synthesis
    • Doesn't work well against gram-negative
  50. How does lysozome work?
    • Breaks down peptidoglycan
    • ex. tears, saliva
  51. Which bacterial species does not have a cell wall?
    Mycoplasma species
  52. What is the difference between a capsule and a slime layer?
    • Capsule: distinct and gelatinous
    • Slime Layer: diffuse and irregular
  53. What is the purpose of a capsule?
    to protect against phagocytosis
  54. What is the purpose of a slime layer and what is it made of?
    • Allows attachment of surfaces and forms biofilms
    • made of glycocalyx
  55. What is Peritrichous?
    when flagella are distributed all over the cell
  56. What is Polar Flagellum?
    A single Flagllum on one side
  57. What is Amphitrichous?
    A flagella at each end of the cell
  58. What is Lophotrichouse
    tuft of flagella at one or both ends of a cell
  59. What comprises the Flagella Structure?
    • Basal body
    • Hook
    • Filament
  60. What is are the different taxis?
    • Chemo- chemical
    • Aero- Oxygen
    • Magneto- Magnetic
    • Thermo- Temperature
    • Photo- Light
  61. What are Pili
    short flagella used for attachment purposes
  62. What are Fimbria
    Allows for surface attachement
  63. What are Sex Pili?
    Allow for DNA transfer
  64. What is a Plasmid?
    A small non-essential piece of chromosome
  65. What are Ribosomes measured in?
  66. What are storage granules?
    used of excess nutrients
  67. What are gas vesicles?
    used for buoyancy
  68. What produces endospores?
    Bacillus and Clostridium
  69. What is sporulation?
    Creation of endospores
  70. What is pinocytosis?
    When a Eukaryotic cell takes in water
  71. What is receptor-mediated endocytosis?
    Cells take in material bound to a receptor
  72. What is phagocytosis
    When a cell engulfs a particle
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Microbiology Chapter 3
Microbiology Chapter 3
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