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What are the 2 common shapes of Prokaryotic cells?
- Spherical- Coccus
- Cylindrical- Rod or Bacillus ex. E.Coli
A short rod that can be mistaken for a coccus in Prokaryotic cells
What are the 4 less common shapes for Prokaryotic cells?
- Vibrio-short, curved rod
- Spirillum-long, curved rod that forms spirals
- Pleomorphic- bacteria that vary in shape
- Spirochete- long helical cell with flexible wall, has a unique mechanism for motility
What are the three types of groupings?
How does a chain form?
When a cell divides in 1 plane
How does a packet form?
When a cell divides in 2+ planes perpendicular to one another
How do clusters form?
When a cell divides in several planes at random
What aspect of bacterial cell division determines the characteristic cell arrangements?
The plane in which the cell divides
What is a diplococci?
- A cocci that typically occurs in pairs
- ex. Neisseria gonorrhoeae
What is a myxobacteria look like?
What is a biofilm?
communities in which surface bacteria lives
What encompasses the Prokaryotic Cell?
- Cell Envelope
What is the cell envelope?
cytoplasmic membrane, cell wall, and capsule
What is the cytoplasm?
viscous material within the envelope
What is the cytosol?
The fluid portion of the cytoplasm
What is the Nucleoid?
gelatinous region where genetic material resides
What is the size of a Prokaryotic Cell, and why?
- Small size, large surface area with a low volume
- Allows for quick nutrient uptake and waste secretion
How much can a light microscope magnify?
How much can an electron microscope magnify?
What does an atomic force microscope do?
Produces images of individual atoms on a surface
What are the two types of electron microscopes?
- TEM- Transmission Electron microscope
- Sem- Scanning microscope
What is a TEM?
- Transmission Electron Microscope
- High powered pictures of inside of cell
What is a SEM
- Scanning Microscope
- Used for surface details
- gives 3D effect
What are the 2 most common types of morphologies for Prokaryotic cells?
- Coccus: Spherical
- Bacillus: cylindrical, rod
What are the four less common morphologies of Prokaryotic cells?
- Vibrio- comma shape
- Spirillum-loose spiral
- Spirochete- cork screw
- Pleomorphic- non-rigid cell wall, many shapes
What does strepto- mean
What does Sarcina mean?
What does Staphylo mean?
What is an example of multicellular associations?
What is a myxobacteria?
- Multicellular association that releases enzymes nad degrades organic material
What is the difference between a peripheral protein and an integral protein?
- Peripheral- only on the peripheral of the membrane
- Integral- Spans the whole membrane
What is Simple Diffusion
Movement of molecules down their gradient
What is Osmosis?
- Movement of water down it's gradient
- Hypotonic > Hypertonic = isotonic
What is a permeases or carrier?
Integral proteins that act as a transport system
What is facilitated diffusion
Molecules move through permeases down their gradient
What is active transport
- movement of molecules opposite of their gradient
- uses ATP or Proton motive force
What is Group Translocation
Permeases chemically alter the compound to move it across a membrane
What is an example of Group Translocation?
What compose Peptidoglycan?
- N-Acetylmuramic Acid
- N- Acetylglucosamine
What are the characteristics of a Gram-Positive wall?
- Has Teichoic acids
What are the characteristics of a Gram-Negative cell wall?
- no teichoic acids
- has an outer membrane with LPS
What is LPS
What is the periplasm?
- thick area between membranes in gram-negative cell walls
- thick with proteins
What is the problem with LPS?
Large amounts can be deadly
What's the purpose of Lipid A?
it's the part of the outermembrane that the immune system detects
What's the purpose of O Antigen?
Used to identify specific bacteria
How does penicillin work?
- Targets Peptidoglycan synthesis
- Doesn't work well against gram-negative
How does lysozome work?
- Breaks down peptidoglycan
- ex. tears, saliva
Which bacterial species does not have a cell wall?
What is the difference between a capsule and a slime layer?
- Capsule: distinct and gelatinous
- Slime Layer: diffuse and irregular
What is the purpose of a capsule?
to protect against phagocytosis
What is the purpose of a slime layer and what is it made of?
- Allows attachment of surfaces and forms biofilms
- made of glycocalyx
What is Peritrichous?
when flagella are distributed all over the cell
What is Polar Flagellum?
A single Flagllum on one side
What is Amphitrichous?
A flagella at each end of the cell
What is Lophotrichouse
tuft of flagella at one or both ends of a cell
What comprises the Flagella Structure?
What is are the different taxis?
- Chemo- chemical
- Aero- Oxygen
- Magneto- Magnetic
- Thermo- Temperature
- Photo- Light
What are Pili
short flagella used for attachment purposes
What are Fimbria
Allows for surface attachement
What are Sex Pili?
Allow for DNA transfer
What is a Plasmid?
A small non-essential piece of chromosome
What are Ribosomes measured in?
What are storage granules?
used of excess nutrients
What are gas vesicles?
used for buoyancy
What produces endospores?
Bacillus and Clostridium
What is sporulation?
Creation of endospores
What is pinocytosis?
When a Eukaryotic cell takes in water
What is receptor-mediated endocytosis?
Cells take in material bound to a receptor
What is phagocytosis
When a cell engulfs a particle