American Government

  1. Who was the 1st president to resign?
  2. What was the first state to ratify the Constitution?
  3. Who formed the first political party?
  4. What was the first political party?
    Democratic party
  5. Who suggested the first national bank?
  6. When was the French and Indian War?
  7. When was the Boston Tea Party?
    Dec 1773
  8. What is significant about Marbury v. Madison?
    Judicial Review
  9. When was Federalism invented?
  10. The US created a constitutional democratic govt when?
  11. Limited Government
    govt subject to strict limitations on its lawful uses of powers and hence on its ability to deprive people of their liberty
  12. Self Government
    govt based on the ppl and subject to their control
  13. What were some ways Britain taxed the colonies while in war with France?
    Stamp Act (repealed)-->Towsend Act (repealed all except tea)-->Boston Tea Party
  14. First Continental Congress
    • called for
    • -free assembly
    • -an end to the British military occupation
    • -their own councils for the imposition of taxes
    • -trial by local juries
  15. Who was Britain's king in 1775?
    King George III
  16. What started the American Revolution?
    Lexington and Concord (the shot heard 'round the world)
  17. What prompted the revision of the Articles of Confederation?
    Shay's Rebellion
  18. Virginia Plan aka
    Large-State Plan
  19. Virginia Plan
    called for 2-chamber Congress that would have supreme authority in all areas "in which the separate states are incompetent," particularly in defense and interstate trade.
  20. New Jersey Plan aka
    Small-state plan
  21. New Jersey Plan
    called for a stronger nat'l gov't with the power to tax and to regulate commerce among the states

    in most areas, though, the Articles would remain in effect.

    each state would have ONE vote.
  22. Great Compromise
    compromise over the revision of the Articles of Confederation.

    called for a bicameral/2-chamber Congress (HR and Senate)
  23. bicameral
  24. HR and Senate have how many votes?
    HR-based on state population

    Senate-based on an equal number of votes (two) for each state
  25. North-South Compromise
    agreement over economic and slavery issues

    including 3/5ths compromise
  26. Anti-Federalists
    against Constitution
  27. Anti-Federalists favored...over...
    revision of the Articles of Confederation over a powerful nat'l gov't
  28. Two dominant Federalists included
    Madison and Hamilton
  29. major goals of the Federalists were to establish a govt that...
    • was strong enough to meet the nation's needs
    • would not threaten the existence of the separate states
    • would not threaten liberty
    • was based on popular consent
  30. grants of power
    powers granted to nat'l gov't
  31. separated institutions sharing powers
    division of nat'l gov'ts power among 3 branches with checks and balances
  32. What was the purpose in creating separated institutions sharing powers?
    To avoid factions gaining full power.
  33. Federalism
    division of political authority between nat'l gov't and the states
  34. Denials of power
    powers expressly denied to the nat'l and state gov'ts by the Constitution.
  35. Bill of Rights
    First 10 Amendments

    specify rights of citizens that the nat'l gov't must respect.
  36. Judicial Review
    power of the courts to declare gov'tal action null and void when it is found to vioalte the Const.
  37. Elections
    power of the voters to remove officials fm office.
  38. Legislature Branch
  39. Executive Branch
  40. President
  41. Judicial Branch
    Supreme Court
  42. Congress consists of...
    House and Senate
  43. representatives of House depend on...
    size of state
  44. representatives of Senate depend on...
    2 from each state
  45. Function of executive branch
    • enforces laws
    • appoints judges
    • veto bills
    • recommend legislations
  46. function of legislative branch
    • makes laws
    • pass bills
    • override veto
    • impeach
    • approve treaties
  47. function of judicial branch
    • interprets laws
    • declares laws unconstitutional
    • declares presidential actions unconstitutional
  48. tyranny of the majority
    great risk of having a popular govt
  49. democracy (old def)
    power of majority is unlimited, whether exercised directly or through a representative
  50. republic (old def)
    govt that is based on majority rule but protects the minority through a guarantee of indiv rights and other checks on majority power.
  51. trustees
    elected representatives who vote according to their own conscience as to what policies are in the best interests of the public.
  52. delegates
    elected representatives who are obligated to respond directly to the expressed opinions of the people they represent
  53. electoral college
    each state has as many electoral votes as it has members in Congress.
  54. Primary election
    select party nominees
  55. President's method of selection and term of service
    electoral college and 4 years
  56. US Senator's method of selection and term of service
    state legislature and 6 years (1/3 of senators' terms expire every 2 years)
  57. US representative's method of selection and term of service
    popular election and 2 years
  58. federal judge's method of selection and term of service
    nominated by president, approved by Senate and indefinite (subject to "good behavior")
  59. T or F Since the Progressive era, no major structural changes have taken place in the process by which American elect their leaders.
  60. Sovereignty
    final authority
  61. Federalism
    the division of soverignty between the nat'l gov't and state gov't
  62. Federalism is the result of...
    political bargaining
  63. Contemporary federalism tilts toward...due to...
    nat'l authority due to the increased interdependence of Amer. soc.
  64. Examples of national powers
    national defense, currency, foreign affairs
  65. concurrent powers
    lend/borrow money, raise taxes, and transportation
  66. state powers
    education, public safety, registration and voting
  67. confederacy
    union in which the states alone are sovereign
  68. unitary system
    sovereignty is vested solely in the natl govt
  69. enumerated powers
    expressed powers
  70. Article I of Constitution grants nat'l gov't...
    17 enumerated powers
  71. supremacy clause
    natl law prevails over state laws when in its const limits
  72. "necessary and proper" clause aka
    elastic clause
  73. "necessary and proper" clause
    gives Congress the power to make all laws nec and proper for carrying out enumerated powers.
  74. implied powers
    the authority to take action that is not expressly authorized by the Const but that supports actions that are so authorized.
  75. 10th Amendment
    reserved powers
  76. reserved powers
    powers granted to the States
  77. Federalism progressed through 3 historical eras.
    • constitutions beginnings (1798) through end of civil war (1865)
    • dual federalism
    • laissez faire
  78. dual federalism
    a doctrine that says a precise separation of power and state power is both possible and desirable
  79. Plessy v. Ferfuson
    separate but equal ruling (segregation era)
  80. laissez-faire capitalisim
    business should be allowed to act w/o interference
  81. commerce clause
    Congress shall have the power to regulate commerce among the states and w/ other nations.
  82. FDR's fed jobs program during Great Depression
    New Deal

    NIRA (Natl Industry Recovery Act)
  83. Brown v. Board of Education
    states could not require black children to attend separate public schools fm those attended by white children.
  84. devolution
    partial shift in authority fm fed govt to state and local govts
  85. cooperative federalism
    jointly funded, jointly adminstered, and jointly determined
  86. fiscal federalism
    the expenditure of federal funds on programs run in part through state and local govts
  87. grants in aid
    • categorical grants
    • blocks grants
  88. categorical grants
    more restrictive and specific
  89. block grants
    less restrictive and more general

  90. Garcia v. San Antonio Authority
    min wage
  91. T or F Federalism was a pragmatic issue to the Framers, one to be decided by the nat'l needs rather than by inflexible rules.
Card Set
American Government
Ch 2