Exam I.3

  1. a.       Chlorophyta (Green Algae)
                                                                  i.      Diverse in __; most are __, but many are found in several habitats
    1.       A diverse population of __, __, __green algae occurs in desert microbiotic crusts worldwide
    a.       In addition to green algae, such __comprise communities of cyanobacteria, diatoms, lichens, etc.  bound to the __
                                                                                                                                          i.      These __ evolved from freshwater __ multiple times
    • structure  and life history
    • aquatic
    • microscopic, unicellular, free-living 
    • crusts 
    • upper layer of soil
    • desert algae
    • green algae
  2.                                                               i.      Some green algae (like __ and __) produce large amounts of __that function as a __, which give the algae an __(3)__ color
                                                                ii.      Most aquatic green algae are found in __, but a couple are marine species. 
    • chlamydomonas and chloromonas
    • carotenoids 
    • shield against intense light
    • orange, red, or rust
    • freshwater
  3.                                                               i.      Resemble __ and __
    1.       They are the only groups of organisms that contain __ and __ and store __, their food reserve, inside __
    2.       Some, but not all, green algae are like __ and __ plants in having firm __ composed of __, __, and __substances
    • bryophytes and vascular plants
    • chlorophylls a and b and store starch,
    • plastids
    • bryophytes and vascular
    • cell walls
    • cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectin
  4. a.       In addition, the microscopic structure of the __ in some green algae resembles that of plant sperm cells
                                                                                                                                          i.      These features, in conjunction with molecular data, strongly indicate that green algae and land plants (bryophytes and vascular plants) form a __ known as the __
    • flagellated reproductive cells
    • monophyletic group
    • Viridiplantae
  5.                                                               i.      Classified according to __, although not always recognized by it
    1.       __, __, etc
                                                                ii.      Use of __, and molecular similaritiesà new systematic alignment of the green algae into several classes
    1.       Three are __(3)__
    • outer structure,
    • Unicellular flagellates, Filamentous types
    • mitosis, cytokinesis, and reproductive cells
    • Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, and Charophycaea
  6.                                                               i.      Differences in Cell Division and Motile Cells
    1.       Freshwater Chlorophyceae have a unique mode of __ involving a __
    a.       The daughter nuclei do what as what happens, and a new system of microtubules, the __, develops __to the plane of cell division
    • cytokinesis
    • phycoplast
    • move toward one antoher
    • nonpersistent mitotic spindle collapses
    • phycoplast
    • parallel
  7. a.       The role of the phycoplast is to __                                                                                                                                      i.      The __ persists throughout mitosis
    1.       In motile cells of the __, there is a crisscrossed pattern of four narrow bands of microtubules called __
    • ensure that he cleavage furrow will pass between two daughter nuclei
    • nuclear envelope
    • chlorophyceae
    • flagellar roots
  8.                                                                                                                                       i.      In other algae, __remain throughout __until disrupted by the __ or __
    1.       Some members of Charophyceae produce a new __, the __, which is nearly identical to that present in bryophytes and vascular plants
    • spindles 
    • cytokinesis 
    • furrow or growth plate
    • cytokietic microtubular system
    • phragmoplast
  9. a.       The microtubules in a phragmoplast are oriented __to the plane of cell division
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  i.      The phragmoplast serves as a“__” for formation of the __
    b.      Flagellated cells of the charophyceae have an __ of microtubules
    • perpendicular 
    • scaffolding
    • cell plate
    • asymmetrical flagellar root system
  10.                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Role of the flagellar root system is to __
                                                                                                                                                                                                                ii.      Sometimes, an associated multilayered structure is associated with one of the __
    b.      The __ of the __is similar to that found in the sperm of bryophytes and vascular plants
    • provide anchorage
    • flagellar roots
    • flagellar root system
    • charophyceae
  11.                                                               i.      Class Chlorophyceae
    1.       Includes __ and __, __ and __ algae, __, and algae with __

    2.       Most are __; __is marine; and, some are __
    • flagellated and nonflagellated unicellular algae,
    • motile and nonmotile colonial
    • filamentous
    • flat sheets fo cells
    • freshwater
    • plankton 
    • terrestrial
  12. 1.       Motile Uncellular Chlorophyte: Chlamydomonas
    a.       Two equal __
    b.      __group; it consists of several distinct lineages
    c.       Its chloroplast, in having a __, or __, does what and is similar to what?
    • flagella
    • Polyphylectic 
    • red photosensitive eyespot,
    • stigma
    • aids in the detection of light and is simiiar to flagellates of zoospores
  13.                                                                                                                                       i.      The chloroplast also have a __, suppounded by a shell of __
    1.       Similar __occur in many other green algal species
    2.       The __ is surrounded by a thin __, inside which is the cell membrane
    b.      There is no cellulose in the cell wall
                                                                                                                                           i.      At the end of the cell are two __, which collect excess water and ultimately discharge it from the cell
    • pyrenoid
    • starch
    • pyrenoids 
    • uninucleate protoplast
    • glycoproteinaceous cell wall
    • contractile vacuoles
  14. a.       Sexual reproduction in Chlamydomonas involes __ in different mating types
                                                                                                                                           i.      __ are induced to form __by __
    1.       The gametes, which resemble the __, first become __
    a.       Within these clumps, __are formed that stick together, first by their __ and later by a slender __—the __—that connects them at the base of their flagella
    • fusion of individuals
    • Vegetative cells
    • gametes 
    • nitrogen fixation
    • vegetative cells
    • aggregated in clumps
    • pairs 
    • flagellar membranes
    • protoplasmic thread
    • conjugation tube
  15.                                                                                                                                                                                                                i.      As soon as this protoplasmic connection is formed, the __becomes free, and one or both pairs of flagella propel the partially fused gametes through the water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ii.      The __of the two gametes fuse completely (__), followed by fusion of their nuclei (__), forming the zygote
    • flagella 
    • protoplasts 
    • plasmogamy
    • karyogamy
  16.                                                                                                                                                                                                                i.      The four flagella __ and __ and a __ forms around the diploid zygoate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ii.      This thick-walled zygote or zygospore then undergoes __
                                                                                                                                                                                                                iii.      __occurs at the end, producing __, which each develop two flagella and a cell wall; they can either divide __or produce a new __
    2.       __ is dominant, but they also exhibit __
    • shorten and disappear
    • thick cell wall
    • dormancy
    • Meiosis 
    • four haploid cells,
    • asexually 
    • zygote
    • Haploid phase
    • zygotic meiosis
  17.                                                               i.      Motile Colonies of Chlorophyceae
    1.       __is an example (spheroid)
    a.       Single layer of 500-600,000 vegetative, biflagellated cells that do __, and some larger nonflagellated __cells, which undergo mitoses to form many-celled, __, which hatch from the parental spheroid by releasing an __that __
    • Volvox 
    • photosynthesis
    • reproductive 
    • juvenile spheroids
    • enzyme 
    • dissolves the transparent parental matrix
  18.                                                                                                                                       i.      As the spheroids first develop, all of the flagella __, so the colony must __ before __.
    b.      Sexual reproduction is always __; in all species so far, it is __, within the population of colonies by a __ that is produced by a spheroid that has itself become __by some other, as yet poorly understood mechanism
    • face the hollow center
    • turn inside out before it can become motile
    • oogamous
    • synchronous
    • sexual inducer
    • sexual
  19. Nonmotile unicellular Chlorophycae
    a.       Ex: chlorococcum found in microbial flora of soils
                                                                                                                                          i.      There’s a huge number of __ that superficially resemble them but can be distinguished by __
    1.       Reproduce __by producing __, released from the parental cell
    2.       Sexual reproduction is accomplished by the __, which __ to form __
    a.       Meisosis is __
    • genera of unicellular soil algae
    • cellular, reproductive, and molecular features
    • asexually 
    • biflagellated zoospores
    • release fo flagellated gametes
    • fuse in pairs
    • zygotes

  20.                                                               i.      Nonmotile Colonies
    1.       Include __, the water net
    a.       Under favorable conditions, it forms massive __ in ponds, lakes, and gentle streams
    2.       Each colony has __ in the form of a __
    3.       Initially __, each becomes __
    a.       At maturity, each cell contains a large __ and __containing the nuclei and a large __ with numerous pyrenoids
    • hydrodictyon
    • surface blooms
    • large, cylindrical cells arranged
    • lacy, hollow cylinder
    • uninucleate
    • multinucleate
    • central vacuole and peripheral cytoplasm 
    • reticulate (resembling a net) chloroplast
  21. 1.       Hydrodictyon reproduces __through the formation of many __ in each cell of the net, which are not released from __, but group themselves into geometric arrays of four to nine within the cylindrical parent cell
    a.       __then lose their __and form the component cells of daughter mini-nets
                                                                                                                                          i.      They are eventually released from the __ and grow into __ by dramatic cell enlargement
    • asexually 
    • uninucleate, biflagellated zoospores
    • parental cells
    • Zoospores 
    • flagella 
    • parent cell
    • mature nets
  22. 1.       __is an example of an unbranched filamentous member
    a.       Filaments begin their developed __, but massive growths may later break away to form noticeable floating blooms
    b.      Their mode of cell division results in the formation of characteristic __
                                                                                                                                          i.      These scars reflect what?
    • Oedogonium 
    • attached to underwater substrates by a holdfast
    • “caps” or annular scars with each cell division
    • the number of division that has occurred in a given cell
  23.                                                               i.      Filamentous and Parencymatous Chlorophyceae
    1.       The __ and __include algae that have the most complex structures found in the calss
    a.       Their cells can be __with respect to particular functions or positions in the algal body and , like plant cells, are sometimes connected by __
    • branched filamentous and parencymatous (tissuelike) 
    • specialized 
    • plasmodesmata
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Exam I.3