1. The Enlightenment
    (17th and 18th centuries) laid the groundwork for the emergence of modern political theory and organization; Building block thoughts: Universe is governed by science and man (not God); Monarchies (kings & aristocrats) should be challenged; Individual and individual self-realization were vital
  2. John Locke-1632-1704, British
    espoused the new idea that rulers should not have absolute power; rather, the ideal in political organization would be a social contract between the ruler and those over whom he rules- 17th century political thinker
  3. Voltaire-1694-1778, French
    opposed the Catholic church and its close tie to the French state; the individual should determine his own relationship to God and nature and in turn, redefine his relationship to the monarch stemming from this new relationship with God
  4. Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels
    jointly authored Communist Manifesto (1847) and Marxs Das Kapital (Capital) (revolutionary), in three volumes (1867-1894). (3rd volume published by Engels after the death of Marx) (Capitalism allows exploitation of the working class=profit)(revolution: working class should appropriate the wealth)
  5. Adam Smith
    ideas laid the foundation for liberal economic thought, particularly the notion of a �free marketplace.� Smith�s ideas are considered foundational for the development of capitalism as a socio-economic system.
  6. Liberalism
    (19th century) laissez faire (let it be) espoused progress and the primary importance of the individual in society; called for the establishment of popular assemblies (parliaments) and constitutions
  7. Marxism
    based on Enlightenment ideals, especially belief in the inevitability of human progress and the rights of individuals to challenge unjust authority. Held that more progressive modes of production would inevitably replace old ones. Socialism->Communism. The final stage of human history would be communism, a kind of utopian society in which government was no longer needed and everyone would have unlimited access to the resources they needed. This method of viewing the world was called modes of production analysis.
  8. Nationalism
    19th century Europe. Is a belief among a group of people that they share a common heritage and future, and that they have the right to organize a political system within definite geographical boundaries to pursue their own self interest, both politically and economically.
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