Anatomy 13: Cardiovascular System

  1. Pertaining to the heart:
  2. Below the normal level of oxygen in blood:
  3. Infarction:
    Tissue death by lack of oxygen
  4. Injury to tissue by lack of oxygen:
  5. Narrowing of an opening or canal:
  6. 4 Functions of the Cardio System:
    1) Transport oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cells (the left side via arteries)

    2) Removes carbon dioxide and waste products from the cells (right side via veins)

    3) Regulates body temperature, pH and water content of cells

    4) Protects the body by providing immunity (WBC) and clotting (platelets)
  7. 3 layers of wall of heart:
    • - pericardium
    • - myocardium
    • - endocardium
  8. About the Pericardium layer:
    - Three tissue layers (2 made of serous membrane/thin connective tissue)

    - Fluid between layers for shock absorption

    - Provides protection from ribs and other structures

    - Limits motion, prevents overexpansion
  9. About the myocardium layer:
    - Thickest layer of heart

    - made of cardiac muscle

    - intercalated discs creates heartbeat

    - contracts on its own, without nervous system input, called autorhythmicity
  10. About the endocardium layer:
    - Layer of simple squamous epithelial cells called endothelium

    - lines inside of the heart and covers valves

    - smooth surface reduces friction as blood moves through
  11. Systole:
    The right and left VENTRICLE are contracting at the same time while the atria are resting.
  12. Diastole:
    The right and left ventricle are resting at the same time
  13. Tricuspid Valve:
    on the RIGHT side of the heart
  14. The Cardiac Cycle:
    • 1. Deox blood enters right atreium from sup/inf vena cava.
    • 2.  R. atrium through tricuspid valve to r. vent
    • 3.  R. vent through pulmonary valve to r/l pulmonary arteries to lungs
    • 4.  Blood picks up oxygen from lungs, back to heart via r/l pulmonary veins
    • 5.  Oxygenated blood from l/r pulm veins enters left atrium
    • 6.  L. atrium through mitral valve to L. ventricle
    • 7.  L. vent pushes oxygenated blodd through aortic valve throughout the body
  15. Autorhythmic Cells:
    Cells that generate electrical impulse in the heart (without the nervous system)
  16. 3 Loops of the Circulatory process:
    • 1. Coronary Circulation
    • 2. Pulomanry Circulation
    • 3. Systemic Circulation
  17. Cardiac Enzyme Test:
    identifies damage during or immediately after a cardiac event
  18. Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)
    Heart attack by lack of blood flow, usually a blood clot.
  19. Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
    heart is unable to pump blood, usually bc of damage by HBP or respiratory disorders
  20. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
    Caused by atherosclerosis, blockage of arteries
  21. Arrhythmias/ Dysrhythmias
    many irregularities in heartbeat
  22. Angina
    Chest pain caused from lack of blood flow to muscles of the heart.

    Main cause of angina is CAD
Card Set
Anatomy 13: Cardiovascular System
cardio, heart