NCE Practice question/Growth

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  1. What do individuals most commonly project onto others and yet deny within themselves?       
    A. Persona      
    B. Animus      
    C. Superego      
    D. Shadow
    D. The Shadow, what Jung believed was the dark underside of our unconscious minds, is the easiest to project onto others. We see our own dark side in others and label them as enemies without always realizing there is a connection.
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  2. Piaget would place a child who had acquired an ability to describe the world internally by the use of symbols into which of the following categories?       
    A. Primary circular reaction      
    B. Formal operational
    C. Preoperational      
    D. Sensorimotor      
    C. Preoperational
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  3. In Gibson and Walk's visual cliff experiment, 6 to 14 month old infants were placed on a table with a false cliff at the other end created by a glass sheet. In this experiment, most infants:       
    A. Would crawl out onto the glass due to their lack of depth perception.      
    B. Would not crawl out onto the glass on their own, but could be coaxed out onto the glass by their mother.      
    C. Would not crawl out onto the glass due to their depth perception, even if coaxed.
    D. Would not crawl out onto the glass on their own, but could be coaxed out onto the glass by a food source such as a baby bottle.      
    C. Would not crawl out onto the glass due to their depth perception, even if coaxed
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  4. According to Jean Piaget, why do adults continue to develop cognitive skills?       
    A. It is caused by identity diffusion      
    B. It is due to selectivity theory
    C. They develop postformal thought      
    D. They gain more schemas      
    D. They gain more schemas Experiences and education cause adults to add more schemas for understanding the world.
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  5. The age at which an infant is most likely to have a clear attachment to a single individual is:       
    A. 1 month      
    B. 13 months      
    C. 7 months
    D. 5 months      
    C. 7 months The age of 7 months is the age most normal infants will tend to display a strong attachment to a particular individual. During the first two years of a child's life, she will form a strong attachment to the person who cares for her. Most often the primary caregiver for the infant is the baby's mother. Usually the baby will form just as strong of an attachment to her father if he is highly involved in her care. Attachment is defined as a strong bond between the infant and the caregiver. It does not necessarily have to be the infant's biological parents. The best way for parents to foster the attachment with infants is to respond to the infant's needs. Infants communicate mostly through crying. When a newborn cries and a caregiver responds she learns that the world is a good place and that her caregiver is there to take care of her needs. She also develops a sense of trust. This strong sense of trust is the foundation for the lifetime. Without this development, a baby may have problems trusting others as she grows up.
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  6. The term "Terminal Drop" refers to:       Physical decline before death.      Older individuals forgetting short-term memory items.      Intellectual decline in the last five years before death.      Older individuals' lack of interest in beginning new activities.
    Intellectual decline in the last five years before death. Ultimate! The term "terminal drop" refers to the sudden drop of intellectual functioning that occurs 5 years before death. It may reflect brain damage.
  7. During the concrete operational stage of development, what do children learn to do?       Express sexual desires towards the opposite sex      Determine that they are separate beings from the environment around them.      Understand Object Permanence      Conserve mass
    Conserve mass During the concrete operational stage of development, children begin to understand conservation of mass.
  8. The ability of a group of children to play hopscotch in the same manner and with the same level of skill development would be due to:       Maturation      Modeling by other children      Instrumental conditioning      Preoperational stage of development
    Maturation Wow! There is a set of principles which characterizes the pattern and process of growth and development. These principles or characteristics describe typical development as a predictable and orderly process. That is, we can predict how most children will develop and that they will develop at the same rate and at about the same time as other children. Maturation refers to the sequential characteristic of biological growth and development. The biological changes occur in sequential order and give children new abilities. Changes in the brain and nervous system account largely for maturation.
  9. An individual in the Piagetian formal operation stage of cognitive development is learning to use what in everyday life?       Innate Ideas      Abstract Logic      Concrete Operations      Preoperatory thought
    Abstract Logic Chic! During the Formal Operational stage of cognitive development, children begin learning to use abstract logical thought.
  10. What are the four processes of learning as identified by Bandura's social learning theory?       Observation, retention, motivation, duplication      Observation, reproduction, motivation, mastery      Attention, motivation, reproduction, mastery      Attention, retention, reproduction, motivation
    Attention, retention, reproduction, motivation
  11. The most dangerous patterns of drug use are:       Situational, intensive, compulsive      Recreational, experimental, situational      Recreational, social, intensive      Situational, intensive, recreational
    Situational, intensive, compulsive
  12. The theory that there are five stages in dying belongs to:       Frankl      Rosenburg      Wilson      Kubler-Ross
    Kubler-Ross You mow them down! On Death and Dying was the first book by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross on the topic. The book introduced the author's seminal "stages of dying" or "stages of grief" model, which is still widely quoted. According to the Kubler-Ross model, there are five stages that a dying person goes through when he/she is told that he/she has a terminal illness. The five stages go in progression through denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance. This model has been widely adopted by other authors and applied to many other situations where someone suffers a loss or change in social identity. The model is often used in bereavement work. Not all workers in the field agree with the Kubler-Ross model, and some critics feel that the stages are too rigid.
  13. What is Piaget's first stage of cognitive development?       Sensorimotor Intelligence Stage      Formal operational Stage      Concrete Operational Stage      Preoperational Thought Stage
    Sensorimotor Intelligence Stage You got it right! The Piagetian stages are as follows: Sensorimotor Intelligence Stage, Preoperational Stage, Concrete Operational Stage, and finally Formal Operational Stage.
  14. When a stimulus following a response is the establishing factor determining if the response will occur again, this stimulus is know as:       Control      Extinction      Reinforcement      Differentiation
    Reinforcement You rule! In operant conditioning, it is the reinforcement that encourages and is ultimately the guiding motivation for the desired (reinforced) behavior.
  15. Beck has started to do the crossword puzzles in the newspaper. He also buys a book of brain twisters to work on. What developmental stage would Piaget say Beck has reached?       Latency Stage      Formal Operations Stage      Circular Reactions Stage      Intuitive Stage
    Formal Operations Stage Brilliant! The formal operational stage is the final tier of Piaget's stages where a person can begin using logic to solve think and solve problems.
  16. Newborns possess which of the following perceptive skills?       Ability to recognize object permanence      Ability to recognize volume conservation      Vocal ability to fully understand syntax and grammar      Visual ability to differ between various patterns
    Visual ability to differ between various patterns Way to go! According to research, newborns possess the visual ability to differ between various patterns.
  17. Which country has the highest rate of teenage pregnancy?       France      Sweden      United States      Italy
    United States Stellar! The high rate of teen pregnancy in the United States is correlated with child abuse, school problems and delinquency.
  18. The most important factor governing human sexual behavior is:       Biological mating period of the female.      Availability of an appealing sexual companion in a suitable situation.      The Vatican Council.      Fluctuating endorphin levels.
    Availability of an appealing sexual companion in a suitable situation.
  19. For three buoyant years, Skippy and his bride Binky designed web sites from their home-based business. Now, they may lose their biggest clients, the balloon payment on the townhouse is about to come due, and Visa wants to make an example of them to impress federal regulators. The more designs they churn out, the more they argue, and quality sinks. Lawn service worker and Wal-Mart greeter appear to rise on their career horizon. According to Maslow, these folks are now motivated by the need for:       Security and safety      Self-actualization      Self-esteem, respect, and independence      Belonging and love
    Security and safety
  20. Which of these is true of heavy smokers:       They will smoke fewer filtered and/or low tar cigarettes than unfiltered and/or regular cigarettes.      They are more adept at specific tasks when not allowed to smoke.      They have an increased risk of cancer, but demonstrate a lower rate of heart disease, than nonsmokers.      They increase their smoking when stressed out.
    They increase their smoking when stressed out.
  21. A person with an internal locus of control is more likely to       Enjoy gambling and other games involving luck or chance      Suffer from impatience      Withstand delayed rewards or gratification      Be prone to anxiety and depression
    Withstand delayed rewards or gratification You have good judgment! A person with an internal locus of control feels that he is in control of events in his life, rather than being at the mercy of external circumstances. He is more likely to set long-term goals, attribute success to his own actions, and is less prone to suffer from anxiety and impatience.
  22. The use of punishment may become problematic, in that:       Its power to indeed suppress responses is minimal to nil.      It is an open invitation to civil litigation.      It produces fear, frustration, apprehension and promotes aggression.      It does not suppress responses as effectively as negative reinforcement.
    It produces fear, frustration, apprehension and promotes aggression.
  23. Which of the following is not one of the ways in which an individual may perceive his/her environment, according to Jung?       Knowing      Sensing      Feeling      Intuiting
    Knowing Very good! Jung believed that the four ways in which an individual perceives the surrounding environment are: sensing, feeling, intuiting, and thinking.
  24. Which of the following has been found to be the most effective method of discipline?       Criticism      Deduction      Physical punishment      Reasoning
    Reasoning Research has shown that reasoning and explaining the harm behind negative behavior is an extremely effective method of discipline.
  25. What is the final stage in the Piagetian developmental stages?       Sensorimotor      Concrete operational      Preoperational      Formal operational
    Formal operational You're the brightest star in the night! The final stage in the Piagetian developmental stages is the formal operations stage in which abstract thought is possible.
  26. A specific phobia differs from generalized anxiety in the:       Specific age of the sufferer.      Specificity of the stimulus.      Seriousness of the symptoms.      Specific character of the symptoms.
    Specificity of the stimulus.
  27. Linton used to speed on Palmer Avenue where the speed limit is 20 mph. Then one fine sunny Florida day, he was stopped by the Winter Park Police and given a speeding ticket. From that day on, Linton never exceeded the speed limit on Palmer and actually enjoyed tying up traffic by driving that stupid speed of 20 mph. Linton's compliance with the speed limit is an example of the effectiveness of:       Generalization      Vicarious learning      Punishment      Foot in the door response
  28. According to observational learning, a young child would probably mimic:       A television or fairy-tale hero      A parent      Another child      A family friend
    A parent
  29. If you want to voluntarily control physiological involuntary responses, you might try using:       Biofeedback      Mesmerism      Somatic feedback      Rolfing
  30. Responses which gradually approach a desired pattern of behavior are called:       
    Conditioned phases      
    Incremental additions      
    Successive approximations      
    Approximate conditioning
    Successive approximations
  31. Which of these describes psychoactive drugs:       Psychoactive drugs can cause physical withdrawal and tolerance in the user.      They are prescription drugs classified as having possibly dangerous physiological side effects.      They are physiologically addicting substances.      Psychoactive drugs are substances that are able to alter concentration, perception, temperament and psychological processes.
    Psychoactive drugs are substances that are able to alter concentration, perception, temperament and psychological processes.
  32. Which level of arousal can facilitate improvement in doing a relatively simple task?       High      Intermittent      Stable      Moderate
  33. In Perry's cognitive developmental stages, the stage after dualism is:       Relativism      Monism      Reversal      Commitment
    Relativism Go for the prize! Perry's theory of intellectual and ethical development describes how people make meaning of questions of knowledge and valuation. It describes 5 cognitive structural stages (1-5), and 4 existential stages of identity cognition.
  34. What is the age at which a child of average intelligence is capable of correctly reading a clock and telling the time?       Six years old      Twelve years old      Ten years old      Three years old
    Six years old Timeless! Six years of age is the normal age at which a child is able to use spatial reasoning to correctly read the time.
  35. Which concept explains the behavior of a football player who touches his nose six times each time he tries to catch the football, just as he did before his winning touchdown in the SuperBowl?       Steroids      Vicarious learning      Conditioned transference      Superstitious behavior
    Superstitious behavior
  36. Which of these is one of Masters and Johnson's four phases of sexual excitement:       Post-coital play      Excitement      Sharing      Alibi
  37. If alcohol advertising were forthcoming, it would disclose that alcohol is a:       Quasi-narcotic      Carcinogen      Depressant      Stimulant
  38. Wilbert and Emmett were rivals from childhood and had mutual disdain and dislike for one another. If one of their mothers was a therapist who was familiar with the Robber's Cave study, what would she say would be the best way to make the two boys get along?       A superordinate goal      Punishment      Putting the boys in a room together      Systematic Desensitization
    A superordinate goal The Robber's Cave study showed that two hostile groups could be made to get along well and even become friends if they had a superordinate goal to work together for.
  39. At what age is conformity with peers most likely to be the highest?       8-10      20-24      12-14      16-18
    12-14 Preadolescents typically value conformity with their peers. They may experience pressure from peers to engage in a variety of behaviors including experimenting with drugs and alcohol and engaging in sexual activity. As they go through a series of rapid physical, emotional and social changes, preadolescents tend to feel more of a desire to have their peer group as a central role in their lives. It is perfectly normal for children this age to pull away from their family and lean more on their friends.
  40. Kohlberg argued that moral development reflects:       Emotional development      Social integration      Behavior modification      Cognitive development
    Cognitive development
  41. Carl Rogers believed that personality came from what?       Interaction with the environment      Threats and the absence of threats      The organism itself      Expectations and reality
    The organism itself Rogers believes that personality emerges from the self.
  42. Due to the stages of muscle development and coordination seen in children, what would the best age be for a parent to train a child to use the toilet?       Two years old      Three years old      As soon after birth as possible      Eight months old
    Two years old You're the bomb! A child of two years old is at the proper stage for coordination of specific muscles, such as those found in the sphincter.
  43. Which of these is part of the real dope on cocaine?       Regular use causes physical addiction.      Withdrawal is potentially lethal.      Periods of heavy use build a temporary tolerance.      Psychoactive effects gradually creep up on the user after ingestion.
    Periods of heavy use build a temporary tolerance.
  44. Mike is a young man of twenty-six. He has difficulty finding a deep and meaningful relationship, yet he recognizes that part of the problem is his own difficulty in being open and committed to another person. What conflict does this represent?       Industry versus inferiority      Intimacy versus isolation      Basic trust versus basic mistrust      Autonomy versus shame/doubt
    Intimacy versus isolation Great! Meaningful and intimate relationships are at the core of the intimacy versus isolation conflict. A well-balanced individual will be able to maintain an open and committed relationship, where another individual may retreat into an isolated lifestyle.
  45. "Our primary drive is simply an effort to gain superiority, because of ideas of inferiority which began in childhood." This statement would have come from who?       Dollard      Cattell      Bandura      Adler
    Adler Get up and glow! The belief that our primary drive is for superiority due to early feelings of inferiority was typical of Adler's theories.
  46. Jack has a car that he purchased recently and likes very much. Now a celebrity that Jack does not like has endorsed the product. According to Heider's balance theory:       Jack will like his car more now      Jack will like his car less now      Jack will like the celebrity less now      Jack will ask his friends whether they still like his car
    Jack will like his car less now According to balance theory, Jack will like the car less because the negative feeling towards the car will psychologically balance the negative feeling towards the celebrity. The two negative relationships multiply out to a positive result.
  47. What is the first stage in the Piagetian developmental stages?   A4.  Your Answer:    The correct answer: Sensorimotor The first stage in the Piagetian developmental stages is the sensorimotor stage in which simple motor development occurs.
  48. Which theorist would suggest that an individual adjust in a healthy manner to his/her culture and to find effective ways of relating to and within that culture?   A5.  Your Answer:    The correct answer: Horney Horney believed that an individual's culture is a way of defining what is "normal" for that individual. She believed it is important for an individual to relate to that culture as a person and also to relate to themselves within that culture.
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NCE Practice question/Growth
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