Evol Psy 4.

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  1. Kids can separate between Whole object assumption/ taxonomic assumption/
    mutual exclusivity assumption. Why is this?
    • Cognitive Bias, innate knowledge.
    • Some Universal Grammar is innate in all children, According to Chomsky.
  2. Language is characterized by what type of transmission?
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    Cultural transmission
  3. When we read D O G, Do we see a Word, a Picture or a Symbol?
    Symbolic representation
  4. Gigerenzer & Todd found what in regards to the Stock Market?
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    The Heuristic principle makes us smart in some sense; e.g. when people made decisions on the stock market against experts, relying on Big Names, they "won".
  5. Anderson claims that Memory is not evolved for simple storage and retrieval, rather, it supports _____ because of what?
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    It supports decision making; It increases efficiency in retrieval through short-cuts, it is biased. 
  6. Bartlett found that memory is subject to bias when he tested students with a story, where gaps were missing. What types of biases were significant?
    Ethnocentric biases, i.e. depending on where he performed the experiment, students filled in the gaps from their own cultural perspective.
  7. "A behavioural strategy that is robust against invasion from other strategies."
    Evolutionary Stable Strategy
  8. WHO concluded that humans are prone to ______ through his experiment with kids divided into two camps "Eagles" and "Rattlers". However, they may cooperate with the help of a _______. 
    This is known as Natural ........
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    SHERIF concluded that humans are prone to ingroup/outgroup division, regardless of background through his experiment with kids divided into two camps "Eagles" and "Rattlers". However, they may cooperate with the help of a SUPERORDINATE GOAL (Common enemy/problem). This is known as Natural Group Formation
  9. Even though people will be anonymous to eachother, a typical group behaviour known as minimal intergroup discrimination usually occurs. Who tested this?
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  10. What is the "Hallmark of an adaptation"
    • It increases inclusive fitness
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  11. The EEA occurred around _____ years ago, Called the _____ Era
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    10.000/15.000 years+ ago, Pleistocene Era
  12. Traditional social science uses what type of explanations to behaviour related to Goals, Knowledge and the Life history of the individual
    Proximate explanations.
  13. What Force drove organs together according to Empedocles?
  14. Who proposed the "One living filament"?
    • Erasmus Darwin, Darwins Grandfather.
    • "The one living ancestor to all beings." One living filament"
  15. Who proposed the missing "mechanism" for Erasmus Darwin's account of evolution, and what was this mechanism called?
    • Lamarck; The inheritance of acquired characteristics. 
    • Environment;behaviour;organ change;heritable.
  16. Natural selection has two components, namely;
  17. Darwin was a Materialist, T/F?
  18. Who proposed that traits that may have been useful in the EEA might be less useful in modern (i.e. Victorian)society.
  19. Humans are not descended from chimpanzees, True or False?
    • TRUE, They are believed to have a COMMON ANCESTOR. 
    • It's like comparing trains and cars which have their own benefits in some environments, but common ancestor the Horse-drawn cart.
  20. Who laid the foundations of Sociobiology, and what was it a reaction against?
    Harvard Zoologist E.O. Wilson. Reaction against the orthodox SSSM.
  21. The main theoretical position of sociobiology (that social behaviour was influenced by genetic factors) was promoted by _______ in his book _______
    • Dawkins, Selfish Gene.
    • Dawkins later said that Evol. Psy is the SAME as Sociobiology; it's simply repackaged under another name due to many controversies with regards to sociobiology.
  22. Who developed the notion of inclusive fitness andkin altruism
    William Hamilton
  23. Who proposed the notion of reciprocal altruism
    Robert TRIVERS
  24. Who is responsible for "the synthesis of adaptationism and modularity that constitutes the modern approach to evolutionary psychology."
    Tooby & Cosmides, Inspired by Philosopher Jerry Fodor
  25. One way to try to prove the concepts of Evolutionary Psychology is to use research methods from behavioural genetics. What is this method?
    The method is to separate out the effects of genes and the environment by studying twins.
  26. Cross-cultural research mainly looks at What type of cultures, and Why?
    Hunter-Gatherers rather than "developed" ones, since it is thought that many behaviours across cultures may be environmentally contingent. 

    The reasoning behind this is that these societies are living under conditions that aremore similar to those that our ancestors experienced than those in the industrialisedworld
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Evol Psy 4.
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