Bio Ch. 1 Intro Lec Notes

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  1. The study of the structure of the human body
  2. the study of body function

    aka morphology
  3. The study of body structures that can be examined by the naked eye
    gross anatomy
  4. The study of structures that are so small they can be seen only with a microscope

    aka histology
    microscopic anatomy
  5. This type of anatomy traces the structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span and the effects of aging
    developmental anatomy
  6. the study of how body structures form and develop before birth
  7. the study of shapes and markings (landmarks) on the surface of the body that reveal the underlying organs
    surface anatomy
  8. at this structural level atoms combine to form molecules
    chemical level
  9. these four classes of macromolecules are the building blocks of the structures at cellular level
    carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
  10. these are cells functional subunits
    cellular organelles
  11. these are the smallest living thing in the body, they are the basic living unit of all life!!
  12. at this structural level a group of cells work together to perform a common function
    tissue level
  13. list the four tissue types that make up all organs of the human body
    connective, epithelium, muscle and nervous
  14. what is the structural level where two or more tissues work together to perform one function?
    organ level
  15. This system occurs when a group of organs work closely together to perform one function
    organ system
  16. What is the highest level of organization or any living thing?
    an organism
  17. this system allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion and facial expression.  It maintains posture and produces heat
    muscular system
  18. this system breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells
    digestive system
  19. this system protects and supports body organs and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement.  Blood cells are formed within them and they store minerals
    skeletal system
  20. in this system glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use by body cells
    endocrine system
  21. this is the fast-acting control system of the body.  it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands
    nervous system
  22. this system forms the external body covering and protects deeper tissues from injury.  it synthesizes vitamin D and houses cutaneous receptors and sweat and oil glands
    integumentary system
  23. in this system blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and waste throughout the body
    cardiovascular system
  24. this system picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood.  it disposes of debris in its stream.  it houses white blood cells involved in immunity
    lymphatic system
  25. this system keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
    respiratory system
  26. this system eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body, regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood
    urinary system
  27. the function of this system is production of offspring
    reproductive system
  28. in this position, a person stands erect with feet together and eyes forward, the palms face anteriorly with the thumbs pointed away from the body
    anatomical position
  29. toward the head end or upper part of a structure of the body; above
    superior (cranial)
  30. away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below
    inferior (caudal)
  31. toward or at the front of the body; in front of
    anterior (ventral)
  32. toward or at the back of the body; behind
    posterior (dorsal)
  33. toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
  34. away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
  35. closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
  36. farther from the origin of a body part of the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
  37. toward or at the body surface
    superficial (external)
  38. away from the body surface; more internal
  39. this plane are vertical and divide the body into right and left parts
    sagittal planes
  40. this plane runs horizontally from right to left, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts
    transverse plane (cross section)
  41. this plane lies vertically and divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
    frontal plane (coronal)
  42. this plane lies exactly in the midline
    midsagittal plane
  43. this plane lies vertical but offset from the midline
    parasagittal plane
  44. these are angulated or angled away cuts made along any of the standard three planes
    oblique planes
  45. List the four body regions
    head, neck, trunk and limbs
  46. List the three components found in the trunk
    thorax, abdomen and pelvis
  47. List the components found in the upper limbs
    arm and forearm
  48. List the components found in the lower limbs
    thigh and leg
  49. List the cavities that make up the dorsal cavity
    cranial and vertebral cavities
  50. List the cavities that make up the ventral cavities
    thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
  51. List the three parts found in the thoracic cavity
    pleural cavity, mediastinum and pericardial cavity
  52. the abdominal cavity begins and ends where?
    the diaphragm to pelvic brim
  53. the pelvic cavity is located where?
    below the pelvic brim
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Bio Ch. 1 Intro Lec Notes
Bio Ch. 1 Intro Lec Notes
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