Egyptian Culture

  1. Egyptians contributions to the history of funeral service
    • Religion-Considered to be the primary purpose for embalming in Egypt
    • Sanitation-Considered to be the 2nd purpose for embalming in Egypt
    • Climate-the aspect of life & existence in Egypt played a great part in success of the Egyptian mummification process
  2. 3 Biblical references for embalming in Egypt
    • the word embalming is found 3 times in the bible
    • Genesis: Chapter 50; Verses 2,3, & 26
  3. Who was Herodotus?
    Greek Historian
  4. Herodotus was known,
    as the "Father of History" and stated that the Egyptian's were considered to be the 1st to believe in the immortality of the soul
  5. Circle of Necessity
    Egyptians believed that the soul of the deceased had to mae a journey to the sun & back which too as long as 3,000 years to complete
  6. Two cults of worship in Egypt
    • 1. Sun Worshippers
    • 2. Cults of Osiris
  7. Who was Osiris?
    an Egyptian God
  8. Other names for Osiris?
    "god of the underworld and Judge of the dead"
  9. Osiris was linked with 2 forces of fertility in Egypt?
    Sun and Nile River
  10. Osiris was the head of a trinity or triangle of family as gods?
    • Osiris
    • Isis-wife
    • Horus-son
  11. How was Osiris represented
    Mummy Wrappings
  12. What other god was Osiris comparable to?
    The Greek God "Dinoysos" god of wine and fertility
  13. Themes of death & the life beyond
    Sun worshipers and Cult of Osiris
  14. The practice of embalming was a major importance why?
    due to the belief that the deceased would resume normal activites in the after life if they successfully passed the "judgment of Osiris"
  15. How did art of restoriative art come into existance?
    due to the belief that the body had to be complete and as normal as possible to successfully complete the journey known as the Circle of Necessity.
  16. "Center of the Universe"
    the sun
  17. All elements of the body were restored & be reunited when?
    in the afterlife
  18. The Elements of the Body
    had to be restored & would be reunited in the afterlife, thus the ritual of mummification became utmost importance
  19. BA
    the soul of the individual
  20. KA
    the self od double of the individual
  21. Individual Elements are
    BA & KA
  22. What remained in the grave & demanded attention from the living?
  23. Why did the deceased leave behind an estate
    so that the family or friends would have money to take care of the sacrafices
  24. YAKHU
    Shining One or the personality of the individual
  25. NAME
    Considered the identity of the individual
  26. SHADOW
    Comparable to ones Guardian Angel
  27. HEART
    Seat of Intellect/Emotion
  28. Sanitation
    Considered to be the Secondary Purpose for embalming in Egypt
  29. What happened during the period of inundation caused by the annual overflow of the Nile River?
    The Egyptians were unable to bury their dead thus creating unsanitary conditions, resulting in more deaths.
  30. Writers believed the custom of embalming was due to what?
    the frequency of the plagues & other death-dealing diseases which struck Egypt
  31. Climate
    This aspect of life & existence in Egypt played a great part in success of the Egyptian mummification process.
  32. Different Aspects of the Egyptian Funeral were seperated by
    Cost & type of Egyptian funeral
  33. Classifications & their present day comparative worth:
    • Expensive-over $70,000.
    • Medium-around $25,000
    • Inexpensive-less thean $7,000
  34. Reasons, which varied the cost of embalming:
    • Time involved
    • Wealth of the individual or family
    • Embalmers technique & individuality
    • The Dynasty or Period in time (different kingdom)
  35. Expensive method of Embalming steps:
    • 1. Removal of the brain
    • 2. Evisceration through an abdominal Incision
    • 3. Covering with natron
    • 4. The Drying process
    • 5. The bandaging process
  36. Infusion of Drugs and use of an iron hook were used where and for what?
    to remove the brain, through the nostrills
  37. What was used to pac the cranial cavity?
    linen strips soaked in palm wine
  38. When removing all the organs through the side of the abdomen wall what insturment is used?
    "Ethiopian Stone" or sacred stone knife
  39. The cavity walls were bathed and the extracted organs were soaked in what?
    palm wine solution
  40. After soaking, if the organs were not returned to the cavities where were they placed?
    special containers known as "Canopic Jars"
  41. The 4 Canoptic Jars were each named after who
    the four sons of the god Horus
  42. Names of the Canoptic Jars
    IMSET- "Human Head" protected the liver

    DUAMUTEF-"Jackal's Head" protected the stomach

    HAPI-"Ape's Head" protected the lungs

    QUEBEH-SNEWEF-"Hawk's Head" protected the intestines
  43. Where were the Heart & kidneys left
    in the cavity
  44. After the body was covered in natron
    it was then totally coated w/ salt solution after 20 days the body was washed then cleaned with water & prepared for the drying solution
  45. The Drying Process
    when the body is laid in the sun to dry for a period, which could last in excess of 20 days
  46. The bandaging process:
    this was ceremonial & took a number of days to complete, it required the use of some 1,200 yards of 3 1/4 bandaging material, with a perfect geometric pattern accomplished with this procedure, the bandages would be soaked with wine, oils & various spirits to give a pleasant order, the completed mummy was returned to the family for final disposition
  47. medium priced embalming method consist of:
    • the injection of cedar oil into the adomen
    • then immersion of the body in a natron solution
    • drying the body in the air
    • finally body was returned to the family
  48. cedar oil was dicovered to be capable of what?
    dissolving the viscera
  49. Inexpensive embalming procedure was likely to involve any one of the three things?
    • Quick immersion in a natron solution
    • Tanning process similar to that used for leather treatment
    • immersion in a molten asphalt substance, which coated the body to provide protection
  50. Special individuals considered very important to the preperation of the body;
    • Physician or Priest
    • Surgeon of Chief Embalmer
    • Apothecary of Pharmacist
    • Apothecary sevants or Pollinctors
    • Dissector or Anatomist
    • Designer of Painter
  51. physician or priest
    was considered highest on the social scale, main function was the supervision of all, activities involved including the embalming & preparation for the actual funeral & procession
  52. Surgeon of Chief Embalmer
    status in the community was high on the social ladder but no as high as the priest, in direct supervision of all the embalming procedure & for the well-to-do he would actually perform the procedure himself including the wrapping process & background included extensive knowledge of anatomy & medicine
  53. Apothecary of Pharmacist
    chief duty was to compound the spices, oils & spirits used in the embalming process
  54. Apothecary servants or Pollinctors
    main function was to apply the oils & spices to the body
  55. Dissector or Anatomist
    principal job was to perform the evisceration & washing of the remains
  56. Desinger of Painter
    task was the designing & construction of the burial receptacls for which there were obviously various prices
  57. The "Father of History" Herodotus list the three most important individuals to the embalming process as:
    • Physician or Priest
    • Surgeon or Chief Embalmer
    • Apothecary or Pharmacist
  58. From a ceremonial standpoint who were listed as very important to the embalming process:
    • Scribe or lawyer
    • Dissector or Anatomist
  59. Scribe or lawyer
    job was to correctly locate & mark w/ a peice of charcoal, the location for the abdominal incision
  60. Dissector or Anatomist
    was the one who actually made the incision w/ the Ethopian stone, after the incision was closed & sealed w/ wax, an engraged plate w/ what was believed to be the "eye of Osiris" was placed in the chamber of the waxed incision
  61. The Necropolis
    • was a walled suburb of the city where all body preparations too place,
    • was a place of great fear for the public,
    • all individuals involved in embalming process were confined there for life, except the physican who could come and go as needed
  62. Evolution of the Egyptian Coffins:
    • desire in the early periods of Egyptian history was to keep bodies from touching the earth.
    • materials were used to protect the bodies
    • From Xth Dynasty (2,500 B.C.) down to days of the Empires, coffins were an important role
    • between XIIth & XVIIIth Dynasties, the shape of the coffin changed to anthropoid
    • a summary of Egyptian burial receptacles
    • the interment service
    • burial location
  63. Early materials used to protect the body were:
    • mats & skins of lower animals
    • reeds
    • wooden & earthenware baskets
  64. the massive rectangular sarcophagus coffins were in
    vogue in earlier historial periods
  65. What covered the exterior of coffins?
    • Hieroglypic inscriptions that were devoted to prayers, genealogies, religious & magical texts.
    • to help the restoration of the body & person, but to aid & give power to the dead in the afterlife
  66. anthropoid coffins
    the face of the dead was reproduced, by wood carving then later by cartonage-a mixture of linen & stucco & painted in a life-like resemblance
  67. the problem with anthopoid coffins
    getting the right proportions of the face, they also depicted the hands crossed usually holding agricultural implements
  68. portrait coffin
    final development of anthropoid coffins, developed under the Romans in the 2nd century A.D. which instead of modeled head, the face was painted on a wooden panel held in place by bandaging
  69. Order of Egyptian burial receptacles:
    • Earliest materials-mats & animal skins, reed & wood or earthenware baskets
    • Sarcophagus caskets or coffins
    • Anthropoid coffins
    • Portriat coffins-credited to Roman invention
  70. Funeral procession
    • after death, judgement by legal tribunal held before the right to burial was granted
    • physician or priest was in complete charge of arrangement for the procession
    • transportation of mummy on a sledge pulled by oxen or men
    • order of individuals in the procession
  71. judgment of legal tribunal
    weighing of the heart of anubis was the process to determin if the deceased was of good character or unfortunatley deserved burial in a common pit
  72. order of individuals in th funeral procession:
    • deceased
    • religious representatives
    • family of the deceased
    • professional mourners
    • personal slaves of the deceased
    • slaves
    • at end were friends and distant kin of deceased
  73. Interment service:
    • priest & assistants in undisputed control
    • when tomb (eternal house) was reached the coffin was set up on end & turned to face the south
    • prayers offered before the mummy by various persons, sacred rites are performed
    • principal pupose of rites at tomb is to bring about a restoration of all bodily functions of the mummy to be prepared for it's long journey in the next world
  74. Burial locations:
    • utilized earth burial in common grave pits
    • earliest type of tombs is the mastaba (a massive building or retangular shape)
    • later tombs consisted of long subterranean passages leading to a series of chambers
    • the Pyramids were the ultimate & designed by the pharaohs s their Eternal home
  75. The earlies graves were in
    the Nile Valley, consisted of shallow hollows dug in sandy & shingly ground beyond the mud deposits left from the annual inundation by the Nile River
  76. Shallow graves
    were irregular in shape but mostly round & suggested the intention to dispose of the body w/ the least trouble
  77. vessels of rude shape & coarse earthenware were placed where?
    about the body containing funeral offerings such as grain even objects as a flint weapon, hand axes & knives
  78. mastaba
    • a massive building of rectangular shape, consisted of 3 parts;
    • a chamber, sedab & pit (is the place into which the mummy in it's coffin was lowered)
  79. in an attempt to thwart tomb robbers,
    the mummy was placed sillfylly secreted in a sepulchral chamber
Card Set
Egyptian Culture