BIOL Chapter 4

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  1. Organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen are known as:
  2. What are isomers:
    compounds that have the same number of atoms of the same element but different structures and properties
  3. What are the 3 types of isomers?
    • Structural Isomers
    • Cis-Trans Isomers
    • Enantiomers
  4. What are the 7 chemical groups most important to life?
    • Hydroxyl
    • Carbonyl
    • Carboxyl
    • Amino
    • Sulfhydryl
    • Phosphate
    • Methyl groups
  5. Hydroxyl group structure:
    • -OH
    • Single Bond
  6. Carbonyl group structure:
    • >CO
    • Double Bond between Carbon and Oxygen
  7. Carboxyl group structure:
    • -COOH
    • Double bond between oxygen and carbon
  8. Amino group structure:
    • -NH2
    • Both single bonds
  9. Sulfhydryl group structure:
    • -SH
    • Single bond
  10. Phosphate group structure:
    • -OPO32-
    • 3 single bonds and 1 double bond
  11. Methyl group structure:
    • -CH3
    • All single bonds
  12. Hydroxyl group compounds:
    • Alcohols 
    • (specific names usually end with -ol)
  13. Carbonyl group compounds:
    • Ketones (if carbonyl group is within skeleton)
    • Aldehydes (if carbonyl group is at the end of skeleton)
  14. Carboxyl group compounds:
    Carboxylic acids or Organic acids
  15. Amino group compounds:
  16. Sulfhydryl group compounds:
  17. Phosphate group compounds:
    Organic Phosphates
  18. Methyl group compounds:
    Methylated compounds
  19. Functional properties of Hydroxyl group:
    • Polar
    • Can form hydrogen bonds
  20. Functional properties of Carbonyl group:
    • Ketone and aldehyde may be structural isomers with different properties
    • Ketone and aldehyde groups are found in sugars
  21. Functional properties of Carboxyl group:
    • Acts as an acid; can donate H+ because the covalent bond between C and O
    • Found in cells in the ionized form with the charge of -1
  22. Functional properties of Amino group:
    • Acts as a base
    • Found in cells in the ionized form with a charge of +1
  23. Functional properties of Sulfhydryl group:
    • Two sulfhydryl groups can react, forming a covalent bond 
    • Cross linking of cysteines in hair proteins maintains the curliness or straightness of hair
  24. Functional properties of Phosphate group:
    • Contributes negative charge to the molecule (-2 when at the end and -1 when its located internally)
    • Molecules containing phosphate groups have the potential to react with water, releasing energy (ATP)
  25. Functional properties of Methyl group:
    • Addition of Methyl group to DNA affects expression of genes
    • Arrangement of methyl groups in male and female sex hormones affects their shape and function
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BIOL Chapter 4
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