CHW3M1 Unit 1 - Mesopotamia & Egypt

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  1. What are the features of civilization?

    • Merchants & Trading
    • Religion
    • Science and Technology 

    • Government
    • Occupation Specialization
    • Class Structure
    • Agriculture
  2. What is the class structure of Mesopotamia?
    • Gods
    • Royals (priests, kings)
    • Nobility
    • Free clients
    • Workers (trade)
    • Slaves
  3. What type of writing did Sumerians make?
  4. Who made cuneiform?
  5. Name five inventions of the Sumerians
    • Irrigation system
    • Wheel
    • Plow system
    • Cuneiform
    • Sail boat
    • Calendar system
    • Metallurgy
    • Mathematics
  6. Who was the chief in the Akkadians?
  7. Which Mesopotamian group is Sargon?
  8. Name the four groups of Mespotamians
    • Sumerian
    • Akkadian
    • Babylonian
    • Assyrian
  9. Who was the King in Babylonia?
    King Hammurabi
  10. Who was the king in Assyria?
    Assurnasipal II
  11. Who made the first written laws?
    King Hammurabi
  12. Who made the first empire?
  13. What is the Cradle of Civilization?
  14. What is Mesopotamia also known as?
    The Cradle of Civilization
  15. What word in Greek does Mesopotamia come from?
    Between the rivers
  16. What is the history of Mesopotamia in relation to the four groups?
    • Sumer - southern part (3500 - 2000 BCE)
    • Akkad - north part (2340 - 2180 BCE)
    • Babylonia - unified (1830 - 1500 BCE and 650 - 500 BCE)
    • Assyria - Assyrian Empire (1100 - 612 BCE)
  17. What religion was in Mesopotamia?
    • Polytheistic with over 3600 gods and demi gods
    • Kings/rulers were sent, created, and enhanced by gods
  18. Name five prominent Mesopotamian gods
    • Enlil (supreme, god of air)
    • Ishtar (goddess of fertility & life)
    • An (god of beauty)
    • Enki (god of water & underworld)
    • Shamash (god of sun)
  19. What are ziggurats?
    Large temples dedicated to the god of the city
  20. Name a famous ziggurat
    Tower of Babel
  21. What did the Assyrians develop?
    • advanced weapons and military equipment
    • siege engine (cart like structure that protected soldiers)
    • library with tablets of subjects
    • kept time
  22. Who created the concept of private ownership and why?
    Sumerians, to accumulate more land
  23. Who were the terrorists
    Assyrians!!! >:(
  24. How did the Sumerians create their agriculture system?
    • irrigation system
    • building dikes
    • developing a calendar system
    • land fertile
    • fertile crescent
  25. Who unified lower Mesopotamia?
  26. What was the Babylonian economy based on
    Agriculture and wool/cloth
  27. What did Babylonians use for the medium of exchange
  28. How many laws were in the code of Hammurabi?
  29. What was the City of Assur important for?
    important trading & political centre
  30. Who created taxes
  31. Who is Anubis
    God of embalming
  32. Who is Horus
    God of Pharaoh
  33. Who is Osiris
    God of dead
  34. Who is Thoth
    God of wisdom
  35. Who is Isis
    God of magic
  36. Who are the Egyptians idea of spirit
    Ka and Ba

    When the creator god, Khnum created infants, placed them in mother's womb. Ka remained in heart until after death, when spirit and body separate. Ba is personality
  37. To Ancient Egyptians, what did the gods and goddesses represent?
    • Natural & human characteristics/life giving forces
    • Took form of the animal s/he embodied
  38. What is dessication?
    Bodies naturally preserved in deserts
  39. What are reed coffins?
    Trapped moisture of body, causing bodies to decay
  40. What's mummification?
    Use of long strips of linen and natron to preserve body
  41. What effect did the pyramid's shape have?
    • Size = protection
    • Resembled rays of sun descending to earth, associating to the sun god Re
  42. Beliefs concerning the afterlife of the king were documented in
    Pyramid Texts
  43. Why did the Pyramid texts relate the kings with gods?
    so kings became a divine unifying source of religious practice & people of Egypt
  44. Deceased Kings are to return to...
    the womb of Nutt to be reborn
  45. The goal of non-royal Egyptians when deceased is to be...
    equipped spirit - akh - have knowledge of the after life, steady tomb, store treasure
    • Matrilneal descent 
    • married brother and sister
    • leisure - cared for children
    • dress - wigs of human hair, used cosmetics
    • legal rights - could own property, act as judge, collect alimony
    • industrial - made linens, scribes, collected taxes, kept records, accountants
    • manual - worked, hunted
  49. Name five important rulers in New Kingdom
    • Hatshepsut
    • Tuthmosis II
    • Akhenaton
    • Tutankhamun
    • Ramses II

    He trusts a terrible road
  50. What are mastabas?
    Plastered, mud bricks
  51. What did royal mastabas develop into?
    Step pyramids & true pyramids
  52. What did Hatshepsut do
    • First powerful female leader
    • Instead of giving the role to her son, she took it and made it better yo 
    • Expanded trade and created a building program
  53. What did Tuthmosis do
    • hated Hatshepsut :((((
    • Napoleon of Egypt wut wut that's why New Kingdom was wealthy b/c he defeated everyone mwuahahaha >:)
  54. What is Akhenaton do
    • he hated the state religion so he was like "fuck you guys and Amon Aton is da best" and then concentrated his energy on reforming Egyptian religion 
    • built capital city called Akhetaton wow obsessed much 
    • closed other temples LAME
    • he didn't govern the empire so when he died so did the empire loser
  55. What did Tutankhamun do
    • rejected Aton haha later losers let's go back to traditional religion
    • changes Egypt's capital to Thebes LATER AKHETATON
  56. Ramses II!!!
    • constructed buildings and shit like temples fuck yeah
    • he's fuckin awesome sort of
  57. COMPARE AND CONTRAST: Influence of geography
    • both needed rivers because rivers are where it's at 
    • also very hot and dry climate wow lame
  58. COMPARE AND CONTRAST: Religious beliefs
    both had polytheistic gods

    Egypt's afterlife
  59. COMPARE AND CONTRAST: Government structure
    • king is living representation of god - theocracy
    • Assyria, state vs religion
    • extensive code damn u Hammurabi
    • hierarchy yay [gods -> kings -> nobility -> free clients -> workers -> slaves]

    • EGYPT
    • Pharaoh is god too wow twinsies
    • had minions like vizier, steward, chamberlain, first herald, and nomarch
    • not as extensive code like mesopotamia
    • hierarchy woo [pharaoh -> minions -> slaves]
    take care of children 

    Egypt they could do more like be in power [Pharaoh] and trade
    • coded laws
    • ziggurats
    • cuneiform
    • irrigation
    • metal working
    • trade
    • transportation
    • wheel
    • math
    • prosper on agriculture

    • EGYPT
    • pyramids
    • mummification
    • buildings b/c Ramses
    • Hatshepsut first woman ya gurl
    • hieroglyphics
  62. Which king united Egypt
    King Menes
  63. What did King Menes do
    unite Egypt
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CHW3M1 Unit 1 - Mesopotamia & Egypt
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