Pharmacology - Quinolones, Urinary Antiseptics and Metronidazole 3

  1. Under what conditions does Nitrofurantoin work best and why?
    Low pH, the reduction occurs better at this pH
  2. Why should you watch out for patients with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency who are taking Nitrofurantoin?
    These individuals are susceptible to hemolytic anemia
  3. What are the adverse effects of Nitrofurantoin?
    GI issues, hemolytic anemia, fevers, chills and pulmonary fibrosis
  4. Does Nitrofurantoin commonly cause serious adverse effects?
    Yes, be careful
  5. What is Nitrofurantoin used for?
    Uncomplicated UTIs
  6. What type of bacteria have nitrireductase and thus can reduce nitrofurantoin, thereby activating it?
    Anareobic bacteria
  7. What is the MOA of Metronidizole?
    Reduced to an amine by nitroreductase and then it damages the DNA by alkylation, causing it to lose its helical structure
  8. Does metronidazole work against aerobes?
    No only anaerobes
  9. Which drugs work against Trichomoniasis, Amediasis and Giardiasis?
    Metronidazole and tindazole
  10. What bugs can be treated with Metronidazle?
    Obligate anaerobic bacteria and parasitic diseases including: Trichomoniasis, Amediasis and Giardiasis
  11. How can metronidazole be administered?
    Orally or IV
  12. What is the half life f metronidazole and is it long or short?
    8-10 hours; fairly long
  13. What parts of the body does metronidazole mainly enter?
    All fluids and CNS
  14. What side effect of metronidazole should you always warn patients about?
    May turn urine reddish brown
  15. Is metronidazole broken down?
    Yes into several metabolites
  16. What are the side effect of metronidazole?
    Cramping/GI effects, HA, dizziness, metallic taste in mouth, oral candidiasis, numbness/neuropathy and utricaria, cystits, disulfarin-like effect, psychosis, neutropenia and mutgenesis during preganacy
  17. What is cystitis?
    Buringin during urination
  18. What are the indications for metronidazole?
    Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, C. diff, Parasitic disease, rosacea
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Pharmacology - Quinolones, Urinary Antiseptics and Metronidazole 3
Pharmacology - Quinolones, Urinary Antiseptics and Metronidazole 3