1. Collision Theory
    • must be energetic Violent enough to cause product formation. 
    • minimum collision energy required for two molecules to react is called the activation energy 
    • proper three-dimensional orientation
  2. Reaction Rate depends on three factors... 
    • collision Frequency: the number of collisions per second between reacting species.
    • Having Energy greater than the activation energy
    • Occur with the molecules properly oriented
  3. Factor Affecting Reaction Rates 
    Nature of the Reaction
    • Have absolutely no control. 
    • Factors such as a molecule three dimensional shape, volume, and the types and number of bonds to be broken all influence reaction rate. 
    • Minor bond rearrangements (especially bond breaking) are usually rapid 
    • Bond breaking must occur tend to be slower. The greater the number of bonds involved, the slower the reaction 
  4. Factor Affecting Reaction Rates 
    Concentration of the Reaction
    • In the gas phase or in solution, the rate of reaction generally increase as the concentration of one or more of the reactants increases.
    • greater the concentration, the greater collision frequency
    • solid phase, its concentration is constant
    • liquid phase, its concentration is constant. However, if more than one reactant one is liquid than it is possible for changing concentration.
  5. Factor Affecting Reaction Rates
    Surface Area of a Solid Reactant
    • If one reactant is a solid and the other is a liquid or a gas, the surface area of the solid affects reactions rate.
    • the greater the surface area the faster the reaction rate.
  6. Factor Affecting Reaction Rates
    Temperature of Reacting System
    • The higher the temperature, the greater the kinetic energy of the molecules
    • greater collision frequency
    • sufficient activation energy
  7. Factor Affecting Reaction Rates
    Can affect reaction rate if and only if one or more of the reaction is in the gas phase. Thus changing the collision frequency.
  8. Factor Affecting Reaction Rates
    • Substance which by virtue of its presence can alter the rate of a reaction, and can be recovered unaltered in nature or amount at the conclusion of the reaction.
    • lower activation energy
    • speeding up the rate limiting step
    • prefect collision geometry
  9. Equilibrium
    • 1. Is a dynamic situation. Forward and reverse reaction continue
    • 2. Reached when the forward and reverse reaction rates are equal
    • 3. The rate at which equilibrium is approached is determined by the reaction rate (kinetics )
  10. Condition Necessary of an Equilibrium to Exist
    • close system
    • temperature must be constant
    • pressure must be held constant
    • no visible changes ( no macroscopic change )
  11. Increase in reactant concentration or decrease product concentration would shift to
  12. Decrease in reactant concentration or increase product concentration would shift to
  13. Increase in temperature would shift to if
    Exothermic reaction-
    Endothermic reaction -
    • Exothermic reaction-reactant
    • Endothermic reaction -  product
  14. Decrease in Temperature
    Exothermic reaction-
    Endothermic reaction -
    • Exothermic reaction- product
    • Endothermic reaction - reactant
  15. Change is Pressure would shift to if
    Increase Pressure
    Decrease Pressure
    Add an inert gas
    Add an inert gas to an expandable container
    • Increase Pressure - lowest number of molecules
    • Decrease Pressure - highest number of molecules
    • Add an inert gas - no effect
    • Add an inert gas to an expandable container - highest number of molecules
  16. Catalysis would shift to
  17. Equilibrium Constant
    1. [?] / [?]
  18. What is a Proper Fraction?
    indicating there is more reactant than product
  19. What is an Improper Fraction?
    Indicating there is less reactant than product
  20. Equilibrium Law Expression
    Image Upload 1
  21. Five Fact about the Equilibrium
    2. Kc > 1
    3. Kc < 1
    • Temperature dependent constant
    • Kc > 1, product are favored
    • Kc < 1, reactant are favored
    • solid and liquids are a constant they are not included in equilibrium constant expression. But more than one liquids include them.
    • forward and reverse reactions are the inverse of each other
    • if a balanced equation coefficient are change by some factor n the get this Knew = (Korginal)n
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