Chem Basis CPNs 1

  1. Why do cephalosporins have a 5-15% cross sensitivity with penicillins?
    Because they both have B-lactam rings
  2. Are CPNs or PCNs considered less allergenic?
  3. Is it still ok to treat a patient with a CPN if they have had a rapid and severe reaction to PCNs?
  4. How do CPNs compare to PCN in terms of spectrum, resistance, toxicity and cost?
    Increased spectrum, toxicity and resistance, decrease toxicity
  5. Are CPNs a first line therapy, why?
    No, b/c they are broad spectrum and may cause resistance
  6. (True/False) CPNs are all natural compounds.
  7. (True/False) CPNs have cross sensitively with PCNs due to both having a COOH group.
  8. (True/False) CPNs have a decreased spectrum of action compared to PCNs.
  9. (True/False) CPNs have increased B-lactamase resistance compared to penicillins.
  10. (True/False) CPNs are less expensive than PCNs.
  11. If a patient has an allergic reaction from penicillin then that patient should absolutely stay away from cephalosporins.
  12. As you move from generation 1to 4 of CPNs, what are the major trends in characteristics?
    Better G- cell wall penetration and better resistance to B-lactamases
  13. What are the 1st generation CPNs?
    Cephlexin, Cefazolin, Cefadroxil
  14. What are the 2nd generation CPNs?
    Cefaclor, Cefuroxime, Cefmandole
  15. What are the third generation CPNs?
    Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime, Cefixime, Cefotetan, Cefoxitin
  16. What re the Fourth generation CPNs?
  17. What drug classes should be tried first before CPNs?
    Penciillins, bactrim and erythromycin
  18. Should 1st generation CPNs be used for meningitis, why or why not?
    No, because they have poor spinal fluid penetration
  19. Are 1st generation CPNs susceptible to B-lactamases produced by G+ staph aureus?
  20. What are the major organisms that CPNs can treat?
    Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, E. coli, Klebsiella and P. mirabilis
  21. How does the G+ spectrum of 2nd generation CPNs compare to 1st generation CPNs?
    Same organisms, just less activity in the 2nd gen
  22. How does the G- coverage of 2nd generation CPNs compare to the 1st generation CPNs?
    Covers same as 1st gen with increased activity and resistance to G- B-lactamases. Also covers: anaerobes, H. influenza, Moraxella catarrhalis and Niesseria species
  23. How does the 3rd generation CPNs G+ coverage compare to the 2nd gens?
    Same organisms, less activity
  24. How does the G- coverage of 3rd generation CPNs compare to the 2nd gen?
    increased G- activity, additional coverage of P. aeruginosa, Serratia enterobacter and B. fragilis
  25. What does VRE stand for?
    Vancomycin resistant enterococci
  26. Which 3rd generation CPNs have good penetration into the CSF?
    Ceftazidime and ceftriaxone
  27. Which 3rd generation CPN has oral availability and high stability against B-lactamases?
  28. Which 3rd generation CPNs cover B. fragilis?
    Cefoxitin and cefotetan
  29. What are the spectrum changes for 4th generation CPNs over 3rd generation CPNs?
    Increased G+ coverage and addition of P. aeruginosa and some enterobacteria
  30. Can 4th generation CPNs treat Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium?
Card Set
Chem Basis CPNs 1
Chem Basis CPNs 1