Global 9H Midterm Review - Review Packet

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  1. Define: Golden Age
    A period of great wealth, relative peace, and a greater than usual number of talented individuals in a given place.
  2. What must be in place in order for a golden age to form?
    Art, knowledge, power, trade, talented individuals, smart leaders, good geography, relative peace, and money.
  3. Define: Civilization
    Highly organized society.
  4. Define: Pre-History
    Time before written records.
  5. Define: Paleolithic Period
    Old stone age - small, nomadic hunter-gatherer populations.
  6. Define: Neolithic Revolution
    New stone age (caused by agriculture) - domestication + farming, larger populations, permanent civilizations.
  7. Define: Archaeologist
    Studies fossils/artifacts.
  8. What did Mary Leaky discover?
    The footprints at Laetoli.
  9. Define: Anthropologist
    Studies cultures.
  10. What does SPERT stand for?
    Social, political, economical, religious, technological. These represent the differences between the Paleolithic Era and the Neolithic Era.
  11. Define: Geography
    Physical features of the Earth that affect human activities.
  12. Define: Cultural Diffusion
    The spreading of ideas and cultural aspects between different cultures. It is affected by geography.
  13. What's the oldest form of writing in human history? Which civilization used it?
    Cuneiform was used by the Mesopotamians.
  14. Why do societies need laws?
    • To manage food distribution amongst the community.
    • To keep order.
    • To set appropriate behaviors.
  15. Define: Artifact
    A man-made object.
  16. Define: Fossil
    The remains of an organism.
  17. Define: Hominid
    Early human-like people.
  18. Define: Homo Sapien Sapien
    Modern humans.
  19. Define: Great Rift Valley
    Oldest human fossils found here (eastern Africa).
  20. Define: Habitat
    The natural home or environment of an animal, plant, or other organism.
  21. Define: Natural Resources
    Materials that occur in nature and can be used for economic gain.
  22. Define: Population Density
    Amount of people in a given area.
  23. How does location affect population density?
    It is high in places that are easier to survive in, such as rivers and is low in harder to survive places such as deserts or mountains.
  24. Define: River Valley
    Locations of the world's earliest civilizations due to fertile soil.
  25. What were the four River Valley Civilizations?
    • Indus Valley - India
    • Huang He Valley - China
    • Nile Valley - Egypt
    • Fertile Crescent - Mesopotamia
  26. Define: Mesopotamia
    Land between Tigris + Euphrates rivers. Also known as Fertile Crescent.
  27. Define: Sumerians
    First to unite Mesopotamia.
  28. Define: Ziggurat
    Religious temples in Mesopotamian city-states.
  29. What was the Hebrew civilizations lasting contribution to society?
  30. What civilization grew from the Phoenicians?
    The Carthaginians.
  31. Define: Maritime Culture
    A civilization that makes its wealth from controlling the seas and trade.
  32. What was the Phoenician Civilization's lasting contribution to society?
    Foundation for modern alphabet.
  33. Define: Moses
    Leader of the Hebrews.
  34. Define: Code of Hammurabi
    First known instance of written law codes. It was harsh and based on social class.
  35. Who was Hammurabi?
    King of Babylon.
  36. Define: Monotheism
    Belief in one god.
  37. Define: Polytheism
    Belief in many gods.
  38. Define: Ten Commandments
    Jewish code of rules and morals.
  39. Define: Darius
    Persian king, first to invade Greece at Marathon.
  40. Define: Xerxes
    Son of Darius, led second invasion of Greece at Thermopiles and Salamis.
  41. What led the Phoenician Civilization to wealth?
    Ability to extract purple dye from a certain type of snail + warships able to control Mediterranean sea.
  42. Define: Satrapies
    Regions that helped organize and govern the divers Persian empire.
  43. Define: Satrap
    Leaders of Satrapies who collected taxes and kept order, like a governor.
  44. What was geography's impact on Ancient Greece?
    • Mountains caused diverse and independent city-states and decreased cultural diffusion.
    • Irregular coastlines had natural harbors which increased trade and diffusion.
  45. How does population density affect cultural diffusion?
    A high population density causes more cultural diffusion.
  46. Which locations in Ancient Greece had a high population density?
    The irregular coastlines.
  47. What was the importance of the Odyssey?
    It was read as a textbook in Greece and exemplifies Greek values.
  48. Define: Mycenaean Civilization
    Warlike culture found on mainland Greece.
  49. Define: Minoan Civilization
    Peace loving, maritime culture found on Crete.
  50. Were the Minoans or the Mycenaeans considered the roots of Greek Civilization?
    Mycenaean Civilization.
  51. What caused the Persian Wars?
    Persia wanted to get trade routes and taxes from Greece. When the Ionians refused to join the Persian empire and revolted, the Greek city-states joined together to fight them off.
  52. How did the Persian Wars lead to the Athenian golden age?
    Athens formed the Delian League to collect money from city-states and defend Greece but used the money to rebuild Athens.
  53. Define: Pericles
    Leader of Athens during golden age. This is why the golden age is known as the "Age of Pericles"
  54. Define: Peloponnesian War
    Dispute between Athens and Sparta because Athens had too much power from the Delian League so they formed the Peloponnesian League and defeated Athens.
  55. Define: Aristotle
    Philosopher who used scientific method. Quoted saying: "Nothing in nature happens in vain." Brought search for existence down from the heavens to Earth.
  56. Define: Socrates
    Philosopher who questioned everything. Quoted saying: "The unexamined life isn't worth living." Killed by the government.
  57. Define: Socratic Method
    Series of carefully guided questions to lead a person to a self-realization.
  58. Define: Hellenistic Culture
    Blending of Greek and Roman culture.
  59. Define: Palatine
    Original fertile hill Rome was founded on.
  60. Define: Hannibal
    Carthaginian general who fought Rome and lost the battle of Zama.
  61. Define: Triumverate
    Three separate rulers of Rome.
  62. Define: Pax Romana
    Peace in Rome, golden age. Occurred during Augustus/Octavian's rule.
  63. Define: Diocletian
    Divided the Roman empire into east and west halves.
  64. Define: Constantine
    Moved capital to Byzantine and renamed it Constantinople.
  65. Define: Sanskrit
    Written language that Aryans brought to India through the Khyber pass.
  66. Define: Dharma
    Caste rules.
  67. Define: Vedas
    Early Hindu texts.
  68. Define: Maurya Empire
    The empire that united India during the classical period.
  69. Define: Asoka
    The non-violent leader who preached tolerance and spread Buddhism beyond India.
  70. Define: Gupta Empire
    India's golden age.
  71. Define: Brahman
    One supreme force.
  72. Define: Vishnu
    The preserver.
  73. Define: Brahma
    The creator.
  74. Define: Shiva
    The destroyer.
  75. Define: Ganges
    The sacred river of India. It washes away sins.
  76. What is the basic philosophy of Hinduism?
    It is a guide that explains everything a person should do from birth to death.
  77. Define: Karma
    • A persons behavior in life.
    • Good behavior = good karma.
    • If you build up good karma you can move into another caste in the next life.
  78. Define: Ethnocentrism
    A belief that your culture is superior to all others.
  79. How does a dynasty lose the Mandate of Heaven?
    They treat the people unfairly and problems occur.
  80. When did India enjoy a golden age?
    Gupta empire.
  81. Define: Dynasty
    A period of time when the religion is under the rule of one family.
  82. Which dynasty had a golden age?
  83. Which dynasty introduced the Mandate of Heaven?
  84. Define: Silk Road
    Trade route Ancient China used which led to cultural diffusion.
  85. Define: Qin
    The dynasty led by Shi Haungdi, China's "First Emperor." Harsh tactics were used to control the people and little freedom of thought was allowed.
  86. Define: Monsoons
    A seasonal wind that brings heavy rain in the summer and dry air in the winter.
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Global 9H Midterm Review - Review Packet
Midterm review for Global 9H
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