Chapter 4

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  1. what is the difference between mucus and mucous
    mucus (muc/o) - thick slimy fluid

    mucous (muc/ous) pertaining to mucus
  2. important for quiz

    four suffixes that have to to with cutting, name and define

    be sure you understand how to separate into word parts properly
    • -ectomy, excision, surgical removal
    • -stomy, surgical creation of an opening
    • -tomy, incision, to cut into
    • -tome, instrument used to cut
  3. congenital
    term meaning something you are born with
  4. When adding a prefix which ends in a vowel to a word root beginning with a vowel, what happens to the vowels?
    The final vowel in a prefix may be dropped when the word to which it is added begins with a vowel.
  5. epidermis
    outer layer of skin
  6. keratin
    horny, or cornified, layer composed of protein.  It is contained in the hair, skin, and nails.
  7. melanin
    color, or pigmentation, of the skin
  8. dermis
    • inner layer of skin
    • also called the true skin
  9. sudoriferous glands
    • tiny, coiled, tubular structures that emerge through pores on the skin's surface and secrete sweat
    • also called sweat glands
  10. sebaceous glands
    secrete sebum (oil) into the hair follicles where the hair shafts pass through the dermis
  11. hair
    compressed, keratinized cells that arise from hair follicles, the sacs that enclose the hair fibers
  12. nails
    originate in the epidermis. nails are found on the upper surface of the ends of the fingers and toes. The white area at the base of the nail is called the lunula, or moon
  13. cutane/o
    combining form

  14. hidr/o
    combining form

  15. kerat/o
    combining form

    • horny tissue, hard
    • also used to refer to the cornea of the eye (see chap. 12)
  16. onych/o
    combining form

  17. seb/o
    combining form

    sebum (oil)
  18. trich/o
    combining form

  19. aut/o
    combining form

  20. bi/o
    combining form


    do not confuse with prefix bi- (two)
  21. coni/o
    combining form

  22. crypt/o
    combining form

  23. heter/o
    combining form

  24. myc/o
    combining form

  25. necr/o
    combining form

    death (cells,body)
  26. pachy/o
    combining form

  27. rhytid/o
    combining form

  28. staphyl/o
    combining form

    grape-like clusters
  29. strept/o
    combining form

    twisted chains
  30. xer/o
    combining form

  31. epi-

    on, upon, over
  32. intra-

  33. para-

    beside, beyond, around, abnormal
  34. per-

  35. sub-

    under, below
  36. trans-

    through, across, beyond
  37. -a
    noun suffix, no meaning
  38. -coccus

    plural -cocci

    berry-shaped (form of bacterium)
  39. -ectomy

    excision or surgical removal
  40. -ia

    diseased or abnormal state, condition of
  41. -itis

  42. -malacia

  43. -opsy

    view of, viewing
  44. -phagia

    eating or swallowing
  45. -plasty

    surgical repair
  46. -rrhea

    flow, discharge
  47. -tome

    instrument used to cut
  48. -stomy

    surgical creation of an opening
  49. -tomy

    • incision
    • to cut into
  50. dermatitis
    inflammation of the skin
  51. dermatoconiosis
    abnormal condition of the skin caused by dust
  52. dermatofibroma
    fibrous tumor of the skin
  53. hidradenitis
    inflammation of a sweat gland
  54. leiodermia
    condition of smooth skin
  55. leukoderma
    • white skin
    • white patches caused by depigmentation
  56. onychocryptosis
    • abnormal condition of a hidden nail
    • also called ingrown nail
  57. onychomalacia
    softening of the nails
  58. onychomycosis
    abnormal condition of a fungus in the nails
  59. onychophagia
    • eating the nails
    • nail biting
  60. pachyderma
    thickening of the skin
  61. paronychia

    (Note what happens with the vowel in the prefix 'para')
    diseased state around the nail
  62. seborrhea
    discharge of sebum (excessive)
  63. trichomycosis
    abnormal condition of a fungus in the hair
  64. xeroderma
    • dry skin
    • a mild form of a cutaneous disorder characterized by karatinization and noninflammatory scaling
  65. abrasion
    scraping away of the skin by mechanical process or injury
  66. abscess
    derived from Latin ab meaning from and cedo meaning to go (the tissue dies and goes away, with the pus replacing it)
    localized connection of pus
  67. acne
    inflammatory disease of the skin involving the sebaceous glands and hair follicles
  68. actinic keratosis
    • a precancerous skin condition of horny tissue formation that results from excessive exposure to sunlight
    • it may evolve into a squamous cell carcinoma
  69. albinism

    Alb is Latin word root meaning white
    Leuk is the Greek word rood meaning white
    congenital hereditary condition characterized by partial or total lack of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes
  70. basal cell carcinoma (BCC)
    • epithelial tumor arising from the epidermis
    • it seldom metastasizes but invades local tissue
    • common in individuals who have had excessive sun exposure
  71. candidiasis

    candidus from Latin meaning gleaming white
    albicans if from the Latin verb albicare meaning to make white
    The growth of the fungus is white, and the infection produces a white discharge
    • an infection of the skin, mouth (also called thrush), or vagina caused by the yeast-type fungus Candida albicans
    • Candida is normally present in the mucous membranes; overgrowth causes an infection
    • esophageal candidiases if often seen in patients with AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)
  72. carbuncle
    singular: furuncle
    skin infection composed of a cluster of boils caused y staphylococcal bacteria
  73. cellulitis
    inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by infection leading o redness, swelling, and fever
  74. contusion
    • injury with no break in the skin, characterized by pain, swelling, and discoloration
    • also called a bruise
  75. eczema

    *watch the spelling
    noninfectious, inflammatory skin disease characterized by redness, itching blisters, and scabs

    **eczema has ribs**
  76. fissure
    slit or crack like sore in the skin
  77. furuncle
    plural: carbuncle
    • painful skin node caused by staphylococcal bacteria in a hair follicle
    • also called a boil
  78. gangrene

    know how to spell correctly for the quiz - two letter 'e', but separated, not together as in the color
    • death of tissue caused by loss of blood supply followed by bacterial invasion
    • a form of necrosis
    • necrotic/necrosis is the big umbrella, gangrene falls under it as a subcategory
    • all gangrene is necrotic, but all necrosis not not gangrenous
  79. herpes

    derived from the Greek herpo meaning to creep along
    it is descriptive of the course and type of skin lesion
    • inflammatory skin disease caused by herpes virus characterized by small blisters in clusters
    • many types of herpes exist
    • Herpes simplex - causes fever blisters
    • Herpes zoster (also called shingles), is characterized by painful skin eruptions that follow nerves inflamed by the virus
    • (Varicella virus causes chicken pox)
  80. impetigo
    superficial skin infection characterized by pustules and caused by either staphylococci or streptococci
  81. infection
    • the invasion of pathogens in body tissue
    • an infection may remain localized if the body's defense mechanisms are effective
    • if the infection persists, in may become acute, subacute, or chronic
    • a systemic infection occurs when the pathogen causing a local infection gains access to the vascular or lymphatic system and becomes disseminated throughout the body
  82. Name four causes of infections
    • Bacterial
    • Fungal
    • Parasitic
    • Viral
  83. Kaposi sarcoma
    • a cancerous condition starting as purple or brown papules on the lower extremities that spreads through the skin to the lymph nodes and internal organs
    • frequently seen with AIDS
  84. laceration
    • torn, ragged-edged wound
    • this is a rip, not a surgical cut
  85. lesion
    • any visible change in tissue resulting from injury or disease
    • it is a broad term that includes sores, wounds, ulcers, and tumors
  86. MRSA infection
    • invasion of body tissue by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, strain of common bacteria that has developed resistance to penicillin and other antibiotics
    • it can produce skin and soft tissue infections and sometimes bloodstream infections and pneumonia, which can be fatal if not treated
    • MRSA is quite common in hospitals and long-term care facilities but is increasingly emerging as an important infection in the general population
  87. pediculosis
    invasion into the skin and hair by lice
  88. psoriasis
    chronic skin condition producing red lesions covered with silvery scales
  89. rosacea
    chronic disorder of the skin that produces erythema, papules, pustules, and broken blood vessels, usually occurring on the central area of the face in people older than 30 years
  90. scabies
    • skin infection caused by the itch mite
    • characterized by papule eruptions that are caused by the female burrowing into the outer layer of the skin and laying eggs.
    • this condition is accompanied by severe itching
  91. scleroderma
    a disease characterized by chronic hardening (induration) of the connective tissue of the skin and other body organs
  92. squamous cell carcinoma (SqCCA)

    actinic keratosis may evolve into SqCCA
    • a malignant growth that develops from scale-like epithelial tissue
    • unlike basal cell carcinoma there is a significant potential for metastasis
    • the most frequent cause is chronic exposure to sunlight
  93. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
    • a chronic inflammatory disease involving the skin, joints, kidneys, and nervous system
    • this autoimmune disease is characterized by periods of remission and exacerbations
    • it also may affect other organs
  94. tinea

    also called ringworm

    infections are classified by body regions such as:
        tinea capitis (scalp),
        tinea corporis (body),
        tinea pedis
    (foot) (athletes foot)
    • fungal infection of the skin
    • the fungi may infect keratin of the skin, hair, and nails
  95. urticaria
    also called hives
    • an itching skin eruption composed of wheals of varying size and shape, which usually resolves in a short period of time
    • while often idiopathic, urticaria is sometimes associated with infections, allergic reactions to food, medicine or other agents
    • other causes include internal disease, physical stimuli, and genetic disorders
  96. vitiligo
    white patches on the skin caused by the destruction of melanocytes associated with autoimmune disorders
  97. Name and define three types of skin lesions
    • Primary lesions, physical changes of the skin or pathological origin
    • Secondary lesions, may result from changes in primary lesions or may be caused by injury or infection
    • Vascular lesions are related to blood vessels and include the escape of blood into the tissues (hemorrhage)
  98. name 7 primary lesions
    • cyst
    • macule
    • nodule
    • papule
    • pustule
    • wheal
    • vesicle
  99. name 3 secondary lesions
    • cicatrix
    • keloid
    • ucler
  100. name 3 vascular lesions
    • petechia (smllest - up to 0.5 cm)
    • purpura (midsize - up to
    • 1cm)
    • ecchymosis (largest - up to 2cm)
  101. biopsy (bx)
    • view of life
    • the removal of living tissue from the body to be viewed under the microscope
  102. dermatoautoplasty
    • surgical repair using one's own skin
    • skin graft
    • also called autograft
  103. dermatoheteroplasty
    • surgical repair using skin from others
    • skin graft
    • also called allograft
  104. dermatome

    *dermat/tome, but note, when two consonants of the same letter come together, one is sometimes dropped
    instrument used to cut skin (in thin slices for skin grafts)

    also refers to the dermatomic area, the area of skin supplied by a specific sensory nerve root
  105. dermatoplasty
    surgical repair of the skin
  106. onychectomy
    excision of a nail
  107. rhytidectomy

    also called facelift
    excision of wrinkles
  108. rhytidoplasty
    surgical repair of wrinkles
  109. cauterization

    also called cautery
    destruction of tissue with a hot or cold instrument, electric current or caustic substance
  110. cryosurgery
    destruction of tissue by using extreme cold, often by using liquid nitrogen
  111. debridement
    removal of contaminated or dead tissue and foreign matter from an open wound
  112. dermabrasion
    procedure to remove skin scars with abrasive material, such as sandpaper
  113. excision
    removal by cutting
  114. incision
    surgical cut or wound produced by a sharp instrument
  115. incision and drainage (I&D)
    surgical cut made to allow the free flow or withdrawal of fluids from a lesion, wound, or cavity
  116. laser surgery
    procedure using an instrument that emits a high-powered beam of light used to cut, burn, vaporize, or destroy tissue
  117. Mohs surgery
    technique of microscopically controlled serial excisions of skin cancers
  118. suturing
    to stich edges of a wound surgically
  119. dermatologist
    a physician who studies and treats skin (diseases)
  120. dermatology (derm)
    • study of the skin
    • a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases
  121. epidermal
    pertaining to upon the skin
  122. erythroderma
    • red skin
    • abnormal redness of the skin
  123. hypodermic
    pertaining to under the skin
  124. intradermal (ID)
    pertaining o within the skin
  125. keratogenic
    originating in horny tissue
  126. necrosis
    • abnormal condition of death
    • cells and tissue die because of disease
  127. percutaneous

    *do not mix up with transdermal
    • pertaining to through the skin
    • usually means performed through the skin, as in the insertion of a needle, catheter, or probe
  128. Staphylococcus (staph)

    Plural: staphylococci
    • berry-shaped (bacterium) in grape-like clusters
    • these bacteria cause many skin diseases
  129. streptococcus (strep)

    plural: streptococci
    berry shaped (bacterium) in twisted chains
  130. subcutaneous (subcut)
    pertaining to under the skin
  131. transdermal (TD)

    *do not mix up with percutaneous
    • pertaining to through the skin
    • usually means entering through the skin and refers to the administration of a drug applied to the skin in ointment or patch form
  132. ungual
    pertaining to the nail
  133. xanthoderma

    also called jaundice
    yellow skin
  134. alopecia

    derived from the Greek alopex meaning fox
    loss of hair
  135. bacteria

    singular: bacterium
    single-celled microorganisms that reproduce by cell division and may cause infection by invading body tissue
  136. cicatrix
  137. cyst
    a close sac containing fluid or semisolid material
  138. cytomegalovirus (CMV)
    a herpes-type virus that usually causes disease when the immune system is compromised
  139. diaphoresis

    derived from Greek dia meaning through and phoreo meaning I carry.
    translated it means the carrying through of perspiration
    profuse sweating
  140. ecchymosis

    Plural: ecchymoses
    escape of blood into the skin (or mucous membrane), causing a small, flat, purple, or blue discoloration as may occur when blood is withdrawn b a needle and syringe from an arm vein
  141. edema
    puffy swellin of tissue from the accumulation of fluid
  142. erythema
  143. fungus

    plural:  fungi
    • organism that feeds by absorbing organic molecules from its surroundings and may cause infection by invading body tissue
    • single-celled fungi (yeast) reproduce by  budding
    • multi-celled fungi (mold) reproduce by spore formation
  144. induration
    abnormal hard spots
  145. jaundice
    • condition characterized by a yellow tinge to the skin
    • also called xanthoderma
  146. keloid
    overgrowth of scar tissue
  147. leukoplakia
    condition characterized by white spots or patches on mucous membrane, which may be precancerous
  148. macule

    probably derived from the ancient Sanskrit world mala meaning dirt
    flat, colored spot on the skin
  149. nevus

    plural: nevi
    • circumscribed (to draw a line around, or encircle) malformation of the skin, usually brown, black, or flesh colored
    • a congenital nevus is present at birth and is referred to as a birthmark
    • also called a mole
  150. nodule
    a small, knotlike mass that can be felt by touch
  151. pallor
  152. papule
    small, solid skin elevation
  153. petechia

    plural:  petechiae
    a pinpoint skin hemorrhage
  154. pressure ulcer (decub)
    also called decubitis ulcer or bed sore
    erosion of the skin caused by prolonged presser, often occurring in bedridden patients
  155. pruritus
    severe itching
  156. purpura
    • small hemorrhages in the skin (or mucous membrane), giving a purple-red discoloration
    • associated with blood disorders or vascular abnormalities
  157. pustule
    elevation of skin containing pus
  158. ulcer
    erosion of the skin or mucous membrane
  159. verruca

    also called a wart

    **Verruca is Viral: V+V=Wart**
    circumscribed cutaneous elevation caused by a virus
  160. vesicle

    also called a blister
    small elevation of the epidermis containing liquid
  161. virus
    • minute microorganism, much smaller that a bacterium, characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the ability to replicate only within living host cells
    • may cause infection by invading body tissue
  162. wheal
    • transitory, itchy elevation of the skin with a white center and a red surrounding area
    • a wheal is an individual urticaria (hive) lesion
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Chapter 4
Integumentary System
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