Patho 1 (Prof Bruce & Neoplasia)

  1. One of a number of alternative forms of the same gene or a variation of a gene at a specific location.
  2. A specific loxation of a gene or DNA sequence on a chromosome.
  3. Encompasses the whole collection of an individual's genes.
  4. The instructions for making a protein molecule.
  5. The process that makes proteins from mRNA.
  6. Caused by an error in cell division during meiosis resulting in an extra #21 chromosome.
    Down Syndrome
  7. Which type of cells are unable to divide and reproduce?
    Well-differentiated neurons of skeletal & cardiac muscles.
  8. Which cells continue to divide and reproduce? Examples?
    • Progenator cells.
    • blood, skin, and liver cells
  9. Which type of cell can be triggered to enter the cell cycle and produce large numbers of progenitor cells when needed?
    Undifferentiated stem cells
  10. Type of stem cell that produces one cell type but retain property of self renewal. Examples?
    • unipotent stem cell
    • muscle satellite cell, sperm cell
  11. Stem cell that will only produce a small number of cells. Examples?
    • Oligopotent
    • RBCs, WBCs, platelets, etc
  12. Type of stem cell that can produce numerous types of cells. example?
    • Pluripotent.
    • Embryo - cells from all 3 germ layers
  13. Specific location of a gene or DNA sequence on a chromosome.
  14. A list of inherited instructions that may or may not have an observable effect on the organism.
  15. How the gene is expressed - what you see.
  16. ______ codes for ______.
    Genotype; phenotype
  17. Associated with effects of multiple genes in combination with lifestyle and environmental factors.  Examples?
    • Multifactorial Inheritance Disorders
    • Heart Disease & Diabetes
  18. How soon after the first indication of Compartment Syndrome can permanent loss of function occur?
    After 4-6 hours
  19. What is the hallmark symptom of Compartment Syndrome?
    SEVERE pain that has gotten worse
  20. What is Compartment Syndrome?
    • Too much pressure in too little space 
    • Compromises the circulation and fxn of the tissues within the space
    • fluid acculumalates and impairs circulation
  21. Most common signs/symptoms of Compartment Syndrome?
    Bleeding and edema
  22. To realign a fracture.
  23. To stabilize a fracture.
  24. What are the 5 P's of neurovascular assessment?
    • Pain
    • Pulse
    • Pallor (color)
    • Parasthesia (no feeling)
    • Paralysis (no movement)
  25. Where should you take a pulse in relation to an injury?
    Distal to the injury
  26. What is a strain?
    A tear or injury to a tendon or muscle.
  27. What is a sprain?
    A tear or injury to a ligament.
  28. Who is most at risk for Osteoporosis?
    Women and sedentary people
  29. What is Osteoporosis?
    Decreased bone mass/density & imbalance of bone formation
  30. Softening of the bones caused by defective bone mineralization.
  31. What is the hallmark sign of Osteomalacia/Rickets?
    Bone pain and tenderness
  32. What causes Osteomalacia/Rickets?
    Vitamin D deficiency which lowers the calcium absorption, therefore no calcification of the bones occur (soft bones)
  33. Osteoporosis is due to a lack of ______ whereas Osteomalacia is due to a lack of _______.
    • calcium
    • Vitamin D
  34. "Bowing of the legs"
    Paget's disease
  35. What causes Paget's disease?
  36. Excessive breakdown of bone tissue followed by abnormal bone formation.
    Paget's Disease
  37. Normal bone marrow is replaced by vascular, fibrous, connective tissue that leads to formation of larger, disorganized, & WEAKER bone tissue.
    Paget's disease
  38. Paget's disease most commonly affects these areas of the body.
    • Skull,
    • femur,
    • tibia,
    • pelvic bones,
    • vertebrae.
  39. Which bone disease is a mineralization problem?
  40. What is most often the cause of Osteomyelitis?
    A staphylococcal infection of an open wound
  41. Acute and chronic inflammation, fever, pain, necrotic bone - these are all s/s of what?
  42. What is Osteomyelitis?
    A blood-borne (endogenous) infection
  43. 38% of bone tumors; located in the metaphyses of long bones; most common type of bone tumor.
  44. Osteosarcoma mainly affects what age?
    Young adults
  45. Body makes too many bone plasma cells that produce ab that are not needed. The cells collect in bone marrow.
    Multiple Myeloma
  46. First symptoms include bone pain, often in the back or ribs, broken bones, weakness, fatigue, wt loss, or repeated infections.
    Multiple Myeloma
  47. What are some advanced symptoms of Multiple Myeloma?
    • nausea
    • vomiting
    • constipation
    • urination problems
    • weakness or numbness in legs
  48. Chronic and frequent disease which includes degeneration and loss of articular cartilage and formation of bone spurs.
  49. Degenerative Joint Disease.
  50. Main complaint is dull, achy pain usually at knees or hips.
  51. "Bone on Bone"
  52. What do 70-80% of those with Rheumatoid Arthritis have?
    an antibody called the Rheumatoid Factor
  53. What manifestation does RA have that osteoarthritis does NOT have?
    warmth.  Also, it's usually bilateral and symmetrical.
  54. Metabolic disorder characterized by elevated uric acid levels in blood. Caused by deposit of uric acid crystals in synovial fluid and joint tissues.
  55. Some foods & bev with high levels of purines (things for gout pt to avoid).
    • Shellfish
    • organ meats (kidney, liver, etc)
    • Red meat
    • Red wine & beer
  56. A few symptoms of this are:
    tender lymph nodes in neck or armpit
    pain in joints w/o swelling or redness
    post-exertion malaise >24 hrs
    headaches of a new type, pattern or severity
    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
  57. Originates in bone marrow and occurs after a fracture. Is common in pts with long bone fractures; usually occurs within 48 hrs of injury.
    Fat embolism
  58. S/S include agitation & restlessness, mental status changes, tachycardia/tachypnea & hypotension, sudden dyspnea, petechial rash over upper chest & neck.
    Fat embolism
Card Set
Patho 1 (Prof Bruce & Neoplasia)
Genetic & Congenital Disorder Musculoskeletal