inhibit tubular reabsorption of Na+ and Cl- in the kidney .: inhibiting water reabsorption and increasing urine volume --> decreased vascular resistance.
inhibit Na+ and Cl- reabsorption in the loop of henle
Patassium sparing diuretics:
weak diuretics that prevent hypokalemia
This drug inhibits tubular reabsorption of Na+ and Cl- in the kidney .: inhibiting water reabsorption and increasing urine volume --> decreased vascular resistance.
NOT for elderly or those with renal dysfunction
may cause hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, hypercalcemia, hypokalemia, digoxin toxicity
This drug inhibits Na+ and Cl- reabsorption in the loop of henle
safe for elderly
may cause hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hyperglycemia, hyperurecemia
C) loop diuretics (lasix, bumex)
This drug is weak diuretic that prevents hypokalemia
may cause hyperkalemia if taken with ACE inhibitors or K+ supplements
A) potassium sparing diuretics
These cells initiate physiological responses such as increasing the rate and force of contraction of the heart as well as relaxing bronchial and vascular smooth muscle.
Beta 1 receptors located in Heart
Beta 2 receptors located in lungs and arterioles
beta blockers can be selective or non-selective.
non-selective block both beta 1 and 2 receptors
selective block only beta 1 receptors
these antihypertensive drugs block rennin release from the kidneys and decrease CO by slowing down HR.
Beta blockers (propanolol, nadolol, levatol)
should be avoided with agina, COPD, and DM
Ca+ does what to muscle tissue?
causes depolarization which leads to muscle contraction
this antihypertensive drug inhibits the influx of Ca+ ions into myocardial and vascular cells therefore: inhibiting the contractile process and allowing for vasodilation of the coronary arteries and decreased peripheral resistance to blood flow.
flushing, headache, ankle swelling
**verapamil may cause digoxin toxicity and cardiac depression and av block if given with beta blockers**
These are receptors are located in smooth muscle causing arterial and venous vasoconstriction
alpha 1-adrenergic receptors
These receptors are located in the brainstem and decrease the sympathetic NS signals resulting in decreased HR, peripheral resistance, and BP.
alpha 2- receptors
this antihypertensive drug causes arterial and venous vasodialtion by blocking these receptors
alpha 1 blockers
this antihypertensive drug stimulates these receptors in brainstem which decreases the sympathetic NS signals
alpha 2 blockers
chest pain described as a discomfort, heaviness, pressure, aching, burning, fullness, squeezing, or painful feeling due to coronary heart disease.
this angina drug causes peripheral vasodialtion therefore reducing the work of the heart and decreasing oxygen demand. may also relieve coronary spasm and cause vasodialation of the collateral vessels of the heart.
what should you do if after 3 tablets of nitroglycerin the patient continues to have angina?
call EMS as the patient may be having an MI
who is the nitro spray given to?
patients with RA who may have trouble manipulating the tiny sublingual tablets.
when are nitro patches and oinments used?
for chronic angina therapy
other choices for angina therapy:
beta and Ca+channel blockers
anti-anxiety agents (zoloft, paxil, ativan) for strees related angina
NO to trycyclic antidepressants
two types of heart failure:
1)reduced venous return to heart,increased pulm artery press, peripheral edema
2)reduced CO with decreased blood pumped into system
1)right sided heart failure
2)left sided heart failure
Drug Treatment for Hrt Failure in order:
Non-selective Beta blockers with selective alpha 1 blockers
conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II causes what?
vascular smooth muscle contraction
This drug is for the initial treatment for heart failure.
it inhibits angiotensin I from converting to angiotensin II
it inhibits secreation of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex --> decreases Na+ and H2O retention increases vasodilation and decreases peripheral resistance