European Imperialism

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  1. Second Industrial Revolution
    Also known as the Technological Revolution, began in the latter half of the 19th century until World War I. It is considered to have begun around the time of the introduction of Bessemer steel in the 1860s and culminated in early factory electrification, mass production and the production line.
  2. Henry Bessemer
    was an English engineer, inventor, and businessman. Bessemer's name is chiefly known in connection with the Bessemer process for the manufacture of steel.
  3. Guides Michelin
    Published the first edition of a guide for French motorists in 1900. At the time there were fewer than 3,000 cars in France, and the Michelin guide was intended to boost the demand for cars, and thus for car tires.
  4. New Paris
    The areas controlled and claimed by France in southeast Asia
  5. Married Womens Property Act
    significantly altered English law regarding the property rights granted to married women, allowing them to own and control their own property
  6. Obstacles for Russian women
    Having to be given the right to an education, and for common equalities and rights that men had.
  7. Cult of Domesticity
    This value system emphasized new ideas of femininity, the woman's role within the home and the dynamics of work and family. "True women" were supposed to possess four cardinal virtues: piety, purity, domesticity, and submissiveness.[
  8. putting out system
    In putting-out, work is contracted by a central agent to subcontractors who complete the work in off-site facilities, either in their own homes or in workshops with multiple craftsmen.
  9. John Stuart Mill
    an English philosopher, political economist and civil servant. He was an influential contributor to social theory, political theory and political economy.
  10. Millicent Fawcett
    was an English suffragist and an early feminist.
  11. Emmeline Pankhurst
    a British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement who helped women win the right to vote.
  12. Pogroms
    a violent riot aimed at massacre or persecution of an ethnic or religious group, particularly one aimed at Jews, especially in areas of the Russian Empire.
  13. First International
    an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist, communist and anarchist political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle. It was founded in 1864 in a workmen's meeting held in Saint Martin's Hall, London. Its first congress was held in 1866 in Geneva.
  14. Fabian Society
    a British socialist organisation whose purpose is to advance the principles of socialism via gradualist and reformist means. The society laid many of the foundations of the Labour Party and subsequently affected the policies of states emerging from the decolonisation of the British Empire, most notably India and Singapore.
  15. German Social Democratic party vs Bismarck
    Bismark instituted the Anti-Socialist Laws. Socialist organizations and meetings were forbidden, as was the circulation of socialist literature. Police officers could stop, search, and arrest socialist party members; socialist leaders were arrested and tried by police courts.
  16. Erfurt Program
    The program declared the imminent death of capitalism and the necessity of socialist ownership of the means of production. The party intended to pursue these goals through legal political participation rather than by revolutionary activity.
  17. Revisionism
    used to refer to various ideas, principles and theories that are based on a significant revision of fundamental Marxist premises.[
  18. Count Sergei Witte
    a highly influential policy-maker who presided over extensive industrialization within the Russian Empire. He served under the last two emperors of Russia. He was also the author of the October Manifesto of 1905, a precursor to Russia's first constitution, and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire.
  19. Kulaks
    a category of relatively affluent farmers in the later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia, and early Soviet Union. The word kulak originally referred to independent farmers in the Russian Empire who emerged from the peasantry and became wealthy following the Stolypin reform, which began in 1906. The label of kulak was broadened in 1918 to include any peasant who resisted handing over their grain to detachments from Moscow.
  20. Zemstvos
    was a form of local government that was instituted during the great liberal reforms performed in Imperial Russia by Alexander II of Russia. After the October Revolution of 1917, the zemstvo system was shut down and replaced by a system of workers' councils.
  21. Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
    Otherwise know as Lenin, a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist. He served as the leader of the Russian SFSR from 1917, and then concurrently as Premier of the Soviet Union from 1922, until his death. Politically a Marxist, his theoretical contributions to Marxist thought are known as Leninism
  22. Bolsheviks
    a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903
  23. Mensheviks
    a faction of the Russian socialist movement that emerged in 1904 after a dispute in the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party between Vladimir Lenin and Julius Martov, leading to the party splitting into two factions, one being the Mensheviks and the other being the Bolsheviks.
  24. Revolution of 1905
    a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire. Some of it was directed against the government, while some was undirected. It included worker strikes, peasant unrest, and military mutinies. It led to the establishment of limited constitutional monarchy
  25. Soviets
    a name used for several Russian political organizations. Examples include the Czar's Council of Ministers, which was called the “Soviet of Ministers”; a workers' local council in late Imperial Russia; and the Supreme Soviet, the bicameral parliament of the Soviet Union.
  26. Duma
    were council assemblies which were created by the Czar of Russia. Simply, it is a form of Russian governmental institution that was formed during the reign of the last Tsar, Nicholas II.
  27. Stolypin
    served as Prime Minister and the leader of the third Duma, from 1906 to 1911. His tenure was marked by efforts to counter revolutionary groups and by the implementation of noteworthy agrarian reforms. Stolypin's reforms aimed to stem peasant unrest by creating a class of market-oriented smallholding landowners.
  28. Rasputin
    a Russian peasant, mystic and private adviser to the Romanovs, who became an influential figure in the later years of tsar Nicholas. This was especially the case after August 1915 when the Emperor left Petrograd for Stavka at the front, leaving his wife Alexandra Feodorovna to act in his place.
  29. Positivism
    a philosophy of science based on the view that information derived from logical and mathematical treatments and reports of sensory experience is the exclusive source of all authoritative knowledge
  30. Charles Darwin
    an English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and in a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection
  31. Social Darwinism
    sought to apply biological concepts of natural selection and survival of the fittest to sociology and politics. Social Darwinists generally argue that the strong should see their wealth and power increase while the weak should see their wealth and power decrease
  32. Education Act 1870
    set the framework for schooling of all children between the ages of 5 and 13 in England and Wales.
Card Set
European Imperialism
European Imperialism Pre-WWI
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