airway management power point

  1. what is the primary objective of airway management
    ensure adequate ventilation
  2. patients die because they   aren't ventilated not because
    they aren't intubated
  3. upper airway  ends at the    ?
  4. function of upper airway
    • warm
    • filter
    • humidify air
  5. what is the most common airway   obstruction ?
  6. epiglottis
    • leaf like structure
    • closes during  swallowing
    • prevents aspiration
  7. larynx and  trachea associated structures
    • thyroid gland
    • carotid arteries
    • jugular veins
  8. bronchioles
    • no cartilage in walls
    • small smooth muscle tubes
    • branch into alveolar ducts that end at alveolar sacs
  9. alveoli
    • balloon-like clusters
    • site of gas exchange
    • lined with surfactant
  10. sufactant
    decreases srface tension   and eases    expansion  

    low surfactant equals atelectasis
  11. lungs
    • pleura
    •      ~Visceral-thin slippery outer membrane
    •      ~parietal-lines the inside of thoracic cavity
    •      ~pleural space-space between visceral and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
    •        parietal
  12. occlusion of bronchioles
    • smooth muscle contraction(bronchospasm)
    • mucus plugs
    • inglammatory edema
    • foreign bodies
  13. what is ventilation
    the physical act of moving air into and out of lungs
  14. what is oxygenation
    loading oxygen molecules onto hemoglobin molecules in the bloodstream
  15. what is respiration
    actual exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the alveoli and the tissues of the body
  16. dead space(VD)
    portion of tidal volume that does not reach alveoli and does not do gas exchange
  17. tidal volume (VT)
    amount of breath that is moved into ot out of respiratory tract in one breath

    normal is about 5-7ml/kg or 500ml
  18. minute volume(VE)
    tidal volume x respiratory rate
  19. alveolar volume(VA)
    • air reaching alveoli for gas exchange
    • most precise measurement
  20. residual volume
    amount of air that cannot be expired from the lungs
  21. pulmonary capacities
    sum of 2 or more pulmonary volumes
  22. inspiratory capacity
    amount inspired during normal respiration
  23. vital capacity
    difference between max inspiration and complete expiration
  24. total lung capacity
    maximum volume the lungs can hold
  25. minute alveola ventilaton
    amount of inspired gas available for gas exchange over 1 minute
  26. what is external respiration
    exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries
  27. what is internal respiration
    exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between systemic circulation and the cells of the body
  28. what is cellular respiration
    production of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate

  29. diffusion
    higher concentration to lower concetration
  30. total pressure
    • combined pressure of all atmospheric gases
    • 760 mmhg
  31. partial presure
    pressure exerted by each gas in a mixture
  32. oxygen is carried
    bound by hemoglobin and dissolved in plasma
  33. where does dissolved 02 crosses
    pulmonary capillary membrane and binds to hemoglobin of red blood cell
  34. hypoxia
    inadequate oxygen at the cellular level
  35. Pa02
    • arterial partial pressure of oxygen
    • arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide
  36. anoxia
    a lack of oxygen
  37. agonal
    slow gasping respirations
  38. ataxic(boit's)
    irregular, erratic respirations,no rhythm
  39. central neirogenic hyperventilation
    sustained hyperventilation with respiratory rates greater than 40 per min, is associated with head injury
  40. modified forms of respiration
    • coughing
    • sneezing
    • sigh
    • hiccough
  41. inadequate respiration
    body cannot compensate for increased oxygen demand or cannot maintain a normal range of oxygen/carbon dioxide balance
  42. causes of hypoxemia
    • lower partial pressure of atomospheric 02
    • inadequate hemoglobin level in blood
    • hemoglobin bound by other gases
    • reduced surface are for gas exchange
    • decreased mechanical effort
  43. c02 is a byproduct of what ?
    cellular work
  44. carbon dioxide is transported in the blood in 3 major forms ?
    • plasma
    • blood proteins
    • bicarbonate ions
  45. as 02 crossed into blood what diffuses into alveoli
  46. normal PH
  47. normal PaC02 is

    respiratory alkalosis is

    respiratory acidosis is
    35-45 mmhg

    • below 35mmhg
    • \
    • above 45mmhg
  48. the more light that is absorbed in sp02 the higher the what ?
    % of oxyhemoglobin
  49. Sp02 isnt a direct assesssment of what ?
    adaquet ventilation
  50. always check for a what even when using a sp02
  51. treat patient and not what?
    • Sp02 reading
    • only use Sp02 to see effective treatments are
  52. what is the best indicator or adequate ventilation
  53. inadequate ventilation is any failure to ?
    ventilate the alveoli
Card Set
airway management power point
airway management power point