1. Biochemistry:
    is the scientific discipline that seeks to explain life at the molecular and cellular level
  2. Nutritional Biochemistry:
    is the specialized branch that examines the digestion, absorption, and elimination of nutrients as well as their physiological functions
  3. What are the 4 cellular building blocks?


    -amino acids

  4. Polar molecules are ____
    • Hydrophillic
    • *dissolve in water
  5. Nonpolar are _____
    • hydrophobic
    • *nonsoluble in water
  6. Molecules with similar functional groups have___
    similar properties
  7. What do functional groups determine?
    how a molecule will react with other molecules
  8. charged and symmetry) The more asymmetrical the charge distribution, the more
    the molecule can interact with water
  9. charged and symmetry) The more symmetrical the charge distribution, the less
    • the molecule can interact with water
    • *lipids
  10. what is Amphipathic molecule?
    both polar and non-polar molecule
  11. WHat is an example of amphiatic molecules?
  12. What is plasma membrane made up off?
    phospholipid bilayer
  13. why are cells round?
    • hydrophobic/hydrophyllic interactions naturally create the round structure that contains the cell
    • *phosphate end interacts with water outside
    • *lipid end moves away from the water to the center of the bilayer
  14. 3 purposes of phospholipid bilayer membrane
    -contain the contents of the cell

    -protect the cell from its environment

    -regulate movement of substances into & out of the cell
  15. what does the plasma membrane's selective permeability of membranes do?
    -hydrophobic center inhibits polar substances from entering

    • -allows to utilize protein channels that are selective
    • *determines which water soluble substances may enter
  16. 4 ways to move things across the membrane?

    -facilitative diffusion

    -active transport

  17. 4 types of transportation across membrane) Does diffusion require energy?
  18. 4 types of transportation across membrane) how is diffusion powered by?
    • simple concentration gradient
    • *flows from greater concentration to lower
  19. 4 types of transportation across membrane) what 2 things can flow freely through the membrane/
    O2 and CO2
  20. 4 types of transportation across membrane) Does facilitated diffusion require energy?
  21. 4 types of transportation across membrane) what is facilitated diffusion for?
    large substances that require channels
  22. 4 types of transportation across membrane) Facilitated diffusion- Cotransport:
    a way to move an item against its concentration gradient without expending energy
  23. 4 types of transportation across membrane) Facilitated diffusion- How does Cotransport work?
    attach the item to another item that is already moving down a concentration gradient
  24. 4 types of transportation across membrane) what does active transport create?
    • concentration gradients
    • *created potential energy
  25. 4 types of transportation across membrane) what is active transport used for?
    to move items against their concentration gradient
  26. 4 types of transportation across membrane) what is pinocytosis?
    substance enters encapsulated by a mini plasma membrane
  27. 4 types of transportation across membrane) does pinocytosis require ATP?
  28. Can membrane proteins move around?
    yes, they can move laterally within membrane or enter/exit the membrane
  29. Where do the membrane proteins come from?
    they are produced and managed by the nucleus
  30. what two things does the endoplasmic reticulum create?
    • -protein and lipids
    • *rough and smooth er
  31. what organelle assembles proteins?
  32. what does golgi apparatus do?
    processes and packages proteins after they leave rough e.r
  33. What do lysosomes do? (2)
    contains enzymes that break up proteins, lipids, nucleic acids

    -remove and recycle waste products
  34. what 2 things is the happen at the mitochondrial matrix?
    -TCA cycle

    -fatty acid oxidation
  35. what 4 things is energy needed for?


    -active transport

    -transfer of genetic information
  36. what is free energy?
    potential energy in bonds of nutrients tht is released
  37. What type of bonds hold the phosphates together in ATP?
    • anhydride bonds
    • *release a lot of energy when hydrolyzed
  38. what are 2 examples of potential energy?
    macros and ATP
  39. What is potential energy?
    stored energy
  40. What is activation energy?
    energy necessary to ignite the release of potential energy
  41. what do enzymes do? (2)
    -binds 2 substrates

    -speeds up their reaction by lowering the activation
  42. examples of enzyme) oxidoreductases
    reactions in which one compound is oxidized and another is reduced
  43. examples of enzyme) transferases
    functional group transferred from one substrate to another
  44. examples of enzyme) hydrolases
    hydrolysis of carbon bonds
  45. examples of enzyme) Lyases
    cleavage of C-C, C-S, & C-N bonds
  46. examples of enzyme) Isomerases
    interconversion of optical or geometric isomers
  47. examples of enzyme) LIgases
    catalyze formation of C and other bonds
  48. What does coupling do?
    makes impossible reactions occur
Card Set
organization of a cell