microbiology cells

  1. when studying living organisms, how are they categorized
    monera kingdom for bacteria, protista for algae & protozoans, fungi have their own, animal k for helminthes
  2. viruses are not
  3. two type of cells
    eukaryotic and prokaryotic
  4. which cell has bacteria
  5. which of the two cells are bigger, what size
    • eukaryote 10+ microns
    • prokaryotes .2-5 microns
  6. eukaryotes have flagella for
    locomotion to move toward protein, move away from bacteria
  7. which cell has a nucleus to enclose the dna chromosomes
  8. reproduction of prokaryotes is
    binary fission
  9. binary fission
    replicates their chromosomes and split in half
  10. characteristics of eukaryote cell
    • contain nucleus
    • multiple strands of dna
    • membrane bound organelles
    • mitosis, meiosis
  11. size of cell will relate to the cells
    metabolic and growth rate
  12. both cells have
  13. the prokaryotes cell wall provides
    support and protection from osmotic lysis & gives the cell its shape
  14. 3 basic shapes
    • coccus(spherical)
    • bacillus (rod)
    • spirilla (spiral)
  15. the cell wall of prokaryotes can be divided into two categories
    gram + and gram -
  16. the gram + wall stains
    dark blue/purple
  17. the gram - wall stains
    stains pink
  18. layers of the gram - wall
    • cell membrane
    • peptidoglycan
    • lps
  19. layers of the g+ wall
    • cell membrane
    • peptidoglycan
    • teichoic acid
  20. peptidoglycan is responsible for
    the strength of the wall
  21. how thick is the peptidoglycan layer on a gram - wall
    1 layer
  22. how thick is the g+ cell wall
    20-40 layers thick
  23. which gram is more permeable?
    gram (-)
  24. which wall lacks periplasm
    gram (+)
  25. teichoic acid in the gram (+) gives what type of charge
  26. free living protoplast
  27. cells in which the cell wall has been removed but lysis of the cell has not occured yet
  28. on the outside prokaryotes have a capsule layer made up of a slimy gummy substance that is secreted by both gram +/-
  29. 3 functions of the glycocalyx
    • protection from drying out
    • helps cell adhere to another surface
    • protection from phagocytosis
  30. 2 appendages seen on bacteria
    • pili made of protein for attachment & mating
    • flagella made of ┬áprotein for locomotion
  31. 3 parts of flagella
    • filament hair-like
    • hook for direction
    • basal body anchors the flagella to the cell and turns the filament
  32. the flagella can be arranged on the cell surface in 3 ways
    • monotrichous:one flagellum
    • amphitrichous: two flagellum
    • peritrichous: flagella all over
  33. 2 spores are found in gram(+)
    clostridium and bacillus
  34. spores are formed when
    unfavorable growth situations arise
  35. determines which molecule enter and leave cell
    cell membrane
Card Set
microbiology cells