Psychology 1 - CH 2

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  1. deductive reasoning
    reasoning that proceeds from broad basic principles applied to specific situations
  2. biases
    distorted beliefs bases on a person's subjective sense of reality
  3. inductive reasoning
    reasoning process that proceeds from small specific situations to more general truths
  4. empirical
    able to be tested in objective ways
  5. theories
    ideas about laws that govern phenomena
  6. hypothetico-deductive reasoning
    process of modern science where scientists begin with an educated guess about how the world works, and then set about designing small controlled observations to support or invalidate that hypothesis
  7. hypothesis
    a general statement about the way variables relate that is objectively falsifiable
  8. variable
    condition, event, or situation that is studied in an experiment
  9. independent variable
    condition or event that is thought to be a factor in changing another condition or event
  10. dependent variable
    condition or event that you expect to change as a result of variations in the independent variable
  11. operationalize
    to develop working definition of a variable that allows you to test it
  12. sample
    the group of people studied in an experiment, used to stand in for an entire group of people
  13. random selection
    identifying a sample in such a way that everyone in the population of interest has an equal chance of being involved in the study
  14. descriptive research methods
    studies that allow researchers to demonstrate a relationship between the variables of interest, without specifying a causal relationship
  15. case study
    study focusing on a single person
  16. naturalistic observation
    study in which researchers directly observe people in a study behaving as they normally do
  17. survey experiment
    study in which researchers give participants a questionnaire or interview them
  18. experiment
    controlled observation, in which researchers manipulate the presence or amount of the independent variable to see what effect it has on the dependent variable
  19. experimental group
    group that is exposed to independent variable
  20. control group
    group that has not been or will not be exposed to the independent variable
  21. double-blind procedure
    study in which neither the participant nor the researcher knows what treatment or procedure the participant is receiving
  22. correlation
    predictable relationship between two or more variables
  23. correlation coefficient
    statistic expressing the strength and nature of a relationship between two variables
  24. positive correlation
    relationship in which scores on two variables increase together
  25. negative correlation
    relationship in which scores on one variable increased as scores on another variable decrease
  26. perfect correlation
    one in which two variables are exactly related, such that low, medium, and high scores on both variables are always exactly related
  27. mean
    arithmetic average of a set of scores
  28. standard deviation
    statistical index of how much scores vary within a group
  29. replication
    repeated testing of hypothesis to ensure that the results you achieve in one experiment are not due to chance
  30. institutional review board (IRB)
    research oversight group that evaluates research to protect the right of participants in the study
  31. informed consent
    requirement that researchers give as much information possible about the purpose, procedures, risks, and benefits of the study so that a participant can make an informed decision about weather or not to participate
  32. debriefing
    supplying full information to participants at the end of their participation in a research study
Card Set
Psychology 1 - CH 2
CH 2 Psychology as a Science
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