Repro Quiz 1

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  1. Reproductive Physiology
    Study of reproduction in animals regardless of species
  2. Animal Sciences Reproductive Physiology
    Reproduction in food-producing animals
  3. Why care about reproduction
    • Reproduction failure is the greatest economic loss
    • Animal derived food products are based on ability of the animal to reproduce 
    • The overall goal of reproduction is to produce a healthy offspring
  4. Steps to produce a healthy offspring
    • sperm production, maturation, and transport
    • Standing heat (standing estrus) - time during estrus cycle when a female will stand to be mounted 
    • Copulation 
    • Ovulation 
    • Implantation 
    • Placentation 
    • Gestation 
    • Parturition 
    • Lactation
  5. Additional per year if reproduction improves by 3%
    • 1.05 million beef calves
    • 3.2 million pigs weaned 
    • 3.7 million gallons of milk
  6. Broad Ligament
    • Suspensory tissue that supports the female reproductive tract 
    • Houses vascular network, lymphatic drainage, and nerves 
    • has 3 components
  7. 3 components of Broad ligaments
    • Mesovarium 
    • Mesosalpinx 
    • Mesometrium
  8. Mesovarium
    Supports ovary
  9. Mesosalpinx
    Supports oviduct
  10. Mesometrium
    Supports uterus
  11. Ovary
    • Produces female gamete (oocyte/egg)
    • Produces the female hormones (progestrone and estrogen)
    • Two; oval or rounded
    • Ovarian Anatomical Structures: Follicles, Corpus Hemorrhagicum, Corpus Luteum, Corpus Albicans
  12. Follicles
    • Blister like structures
    • Contains oocyte
    • Produces estrogen 
    • Many follicles at different stages of growth 
    • Develop on surface of ovary (cow, ewe, sow)
    • Single follicle: cow and mare
    • Single or multiple follicles: ewe
    • Multiple follicles: sow
  13. Corpus Hemorrhagicum
    • Blood clot formed after follicle ruptures 
    • Bright red in color 
    • Quickly forms corpus luteum, so few are observed
  14. Corpus Luteum
    • Yellow mass of cells 
    • Protrudes from ovary 
    • Produces progesterone
  15. Corpus Albicans
    • White body formed in degenerative processes of corpus luteum 
    • Connective tissue infiltrates CL
    • Small scar
  16. Oviduct
    • Passageway for oocyte and sperm
    • Site for fertilization
    • Secretory organ
    • Two; tubal shaped
    • Components of: Infundibulum, Ampulla, Isthmus, Uterotubual Junction
  17. Infundibulum
    • Thin, funnel-shaped end of oviduct
    • Fimbria-fringed border
    • First picks up the egg
  18. Ampulla
    • Thicker portion, closer to infundibulum
    • Site of fertilization (ampullary-isthmic junction)
  19. Isthmus
    Thinner portion, from ampulla to uterus
  20. Uterotubal Junction
    Connection to uterus
  21. Uterus
    • Passageway for sperm 
    • Secretory organ
    • Houses developing embryo/fetus 
    • Types: Duplex, Biocornuate, Simplex
    • 3 Layers: Perimetrium, Myometrium, Enometrium 
    • Carnuncles
    • Intercaruncular Space
  22. Simplex
    • No uterine horns
    • Found in Primates
  23. Duplex
    • 2 cervices 
    • Found in Marsupials and Rabbits
  24. Bicornuate
    • Poorly to moderately developed uterine horns
    • Found in Mares, Cow, Sow, Ewe, Cats, Dogs
  25. Perimetrium
    • Outermost layer 
    • Protection 
    • "slip n' slide"
  26. Myometrium
    • Middle layer
    • two layers of muscle
    • Contractions: Sperm movement and birth
  27. Endometrium
    • Innermost Layer
    • Houses: Carnuncles, Glands (produce PGF2-delta and histrotroph)
  28. Carnuncles
    • "button-like" structures on wall of uterus (cow and ewe)
    • Found throughout horns and body
    • Function as site of nutrient exchange during pregnancy
  29. Intercaruncular Space
    • Glandular region 
    • Produces PGF2-delta and histrotroph
  30. Vestibule
    Common area for reproductive and urinary system
  31. Cervix
    • Passageway for sperm following breeding 
    • Secretory organ 
    • Seals off uterus in pregnancy 
    • Passageway for fetus a birth
    • Posterior to uterus; anterior to vagina 
    • Round and tubular, firm, "turkey neck"
  32. Vagina
    • Receives penis during copulation 
    • Secretes small amounts of mucus  
    • Passageway for fetus at birth
    • One; thin-walled, tubular
  33. Vulva
    • Outer lips (labia) of urogenital system 
    • Passageway for urine 
    • Receptor for penis during copulation 
    • Passageway for fetus at birth
    • Protection; prevents material from environment from entering tract
  34. Mare Terms
    • Ovulation Fossa: Mares only ovulate from this location
    • Medulla: Found on outside of ovary
    • Cortex: Found on inside of ovary
    • Transurethral Folds: Unique structure to mare; between the vagina and the vestibule
  35. Scrotum
    • Two-lobed sac containing the testes: protect and support testes; Temperature regulation 
    • Pendulous (Bull and Ram)
    • Nonpendulous (Boar and Stallion)
    • Skin
    • Tunica Dartos Muscle
  36. Skin on Scrotum
    Helps with temperature regulation by having sweat glands
  37. Tunica Dartos Muscle
    • Smooth muscle (sustained contractions)
    • Temperature control (raises and lowers testes)
  38. Testes
    • Pair of reproductive organs
    • Produce male gamete (sperm)
    • Produce hormones (Testosterone)
    • Parietal vaginal tunica
    • Vaginal cavity 
    • Testicular Capsule: 2 layers (Viseral vaginal tunica and Tunica albuginea)
    • Parenchyma 
    • Mediastinum
  39. Tunica Albuginea
    • Connective tissue- provide support
    • Smooth Muscle- Sperm transport
  40. Parenchyma
    • Seminiferous Tubules: sertoli cells- develop male gamete(sperm)
    • Interstital Compartment: Connective tissue; Leydig cells- produce testosterone 
    • Major cellular mass of testes
  41. Mediastinum
    • Central connective tissue core of testis (support and aid in sperm)
    • Rete Testis (rete tubules) Connect seminiferous tubules to efferent ducts 
    • Efferent Ducts - Connect rete testis to head of epididymis
  42. Epididymis
    • Receives sperm from testis 
    • Transports sperm to urethra- smooth muscle contractions 
    • Three parts: head, body, and tail
  43. Head (caput)
    • Receives sperm from testis 
    • Concentrates sperm
  44. Body (corpus)
    Sperm maturation
  45. Tail (caudal)
    Sperm Storage
Card Set
Repro Quiz 1
Male and Female main reproduction organs and intro to reproduction
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