1. Sociological perspective
    understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context
  2. Society
    people who share a culture and a territory
  3. Social location
    the group memberships that people have because of their location in history and society
  4. scientific method
    the use of objective, systematic observations to test theories.
  5. positivism
    the application of the scientific approach to the social world.
  6. why are history and biography both essential elements of the sociological perspective?
    Because the group memberships or society influence the sociological perspective.
  7. When did sociology originate?
    the Industrial Revolution; mid 1800s
  8. sociology
    the scientific study of society and human behavior or the study of society
  9. Who was Auguste Comte?
    The credited founder of sociology
  10. Who is Herbert Spencer?
    Second founder of sociology
  11. Who coined the term "survival of the fittest".
    Herbert Spencer
  12. class conflict
    Marx's term for the struggle between capitalists and workers
  13. bourgeoisie (boo-shwa-ZEE)
    Marx's term for capitalists, those who own the means of production
  14. proletariat
    Marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production
  15. social integration
    the degree to which members of a group or society feel united by shared values and other social bonds; also known as social cohesion.
  16. What is social Darwinism?
    survival of the fittest.
  17. basic sociology aka pure sociology
    sociological research for the purpose of making discoveries about life in human groups, not for making changes in those groups.
  18. applied sociology
    The use of sociology to solve problems- from the micro level of classroom interaction and family relationships to the macro level of crime and pollution
  19. public sociology
    Applying sociology for the public good; especially the use of the sociological perspective to guide politicians and policy makers.
  20. theory
    a general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work; an explanation of how two or more facts are related to one another.
  21. symbolic interactionism
    A theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another.
  22. functional analysis
    A theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of various parts, each with a function that, when fulfilled, contributes to society's equilibrium; also known as functionalism and structural functionalism.
  23. Conflict theory
    A theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of groups that are competing for scarce resources
  24. macro-level analysis
    an examination of large scale patterns of society
  25. micro-level analysis
    an examination of small scale patterns of society, such as how the members of a group interact.
  26. social interaction
    what people do when they areĀ in one another's presence, but includes communications at a distance.
  27. nonverbal interaction
    Communication without words through gestures, use of space, silence and so on.
  28. hypothesis
    a statement of how variables are expected to be related to one another, often according to predictions from a theory.
  29. variables
    a factor thought to be significant for human behavior, which can vary or change from one case to another
  30. operational definition
    the way in which a researcher measures a variable.
  31. research method is also known as research _______.
  32. research method
    one of seven procedures that sociologists use to collect data: surveys, participant observation, case studies, secondary analysis, documents, experiments, and unobtrusive measures.
  33. Validity
    the extent to which an operational definition measures what it is intended to measure
  34. Reliability
    the extent to which research produces consistent or dependable results.
  35. survey
    the collection of data by having people answer a series of questions
  36. population
    a target group to be studied
  37. sample
    the individuals intended to represent the population to be studied.
  38. random sample
    a sample in which everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the study.
  39. stratified random sample
    a sample from selected subgroups of the target population in which everyone in those subgroups has an equal chance of being included in research.
  40. respondents
    people who respond to a survey, either in interviews or by self-administered questionnaires.
  41. closed-ended questions
    questions that are followed by a list of possible answers to be selected by the respondent
  42. open-ended questions
    questions that respondents answer in their own words.
  43. rapport
    a feeling of trust between researchers and the people they are studying
  44. What is an example of a closed-ended question?
    Multiple choice
  45. participant observation or fieldwork
    research in which the researcher participates in a research setting while observing what is happening in that setting.
  46. case study
    an intensive analysis of a single event, situation, or individual.
  47. secondary analysis
    the analysis of data that have been collected by other researchers.
  48. Documents
    In its narrow sense, written sources that provide data; in its extended sense, archival material of any sort, including photographs, movies, CDs, DVDs, and so on
  49. experiment
    the use of control and experimental groups and dependent and independent variables to test causation.
  50. experimental group
    the group of subjects in an experiment who are exposed to the independent variable
  51. control group
    the group of subjects in an experiment who are not exposed to the independent variable
  52. independent variable
    a factor that causes a change in another variable, called the dependent variable
  53. dependent variable
    a factor in an experiment that is changed by an independent variable.
  54. Unobtrusive measures
    ways of observing people so they do not know they are being studied
  55. globalization
    the extensive interconnections among nations
  56. globalization of capitalism
    capitalism becoming the globe's dominant economic system.
  57. culture
    the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that characterize a group and are passed from one generation to the next.
  58. material culture
    the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing, and jewelry.
  59. nonmaterial culture
    a group's ways of thinking and doing aka symbolic culture.
  60. culture shock
    the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about life.
  61. ethnocentrism
    the use of one's own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values, norms, and behaviors.
  62. cultural relativism
    not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms
  63. another term for nonmaterial culture is.
    symbolic culture
  64. symbol
    something to which people attach meaning and then use to communicate with one another
  65. gestures
    the ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with one another.
  66. language
    a system of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought.
  67. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
    Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf's hypothesis that language creates ways of thinking and perceiving
  68. values
    the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly.
  69. norms
    expectations of "right" behavior.
  70. sanctions
    either expressions of approval given to people for upholding norms or expressions of disapproval for violating them
  71. positive sanction
    a reward or positive reaction for following norms, ranging from a smile to a material reward.
  72. negative sanction
    an expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction such as a frown to a formal reaction such as a prison sentence.
  73. folkways
    norms that are not strictly enforced
  74. mores
    norms that are strictly enforced because they are thought essential to core values or the well-being of the group
  75. taboo
    a norm so strong that it often brings revulsion if violated.
  76. subculture
    the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within a world.
  77. counterculture
    a group whose values, beliefs, norms, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture
  78. pluralistic society
    a society made up of many different groups
  79. core values
    the values that are central of a group, those around which it builds a common identity.
  80. value cluster
    values that together form a larger whole
  81. value contradiction
    values that contradict one another; to follow the one means to come into conflict with the other.
  82. ideal culture
    a people's ideal values and norms; the goals held out for them
  83. real culture
    the norms and values that people actually follow; as opposed to ideal culture
  84. cultural universal
    a value, norm, or other cultural trait that is found in every group
  85. sociobiology
    a framework of thought that views human behavior as the result of natural selection and considers biological factors to be a fundamental cause of human behavior.
  86. technology
    in its narrow sense, tools; its broader sense includes the skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools.
  87. new technology
    the emerging technologies of an era that have a significant impact on social life
  88. cultural lag
    Ogburn's term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations
  89. cultural diffusion
    the spread of cultural traits from one group to another; includes both material and nonmaterial cultural traits.
  90. cultural leveling
    the process by which cultures become similar to one another; refers especially to the process by which Western culture is being exported and diffused into other nations.
Card Set
Flash cards for sociology exam #1