The flashcards below were created by user Ivanneth on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. four levels of organization in vertebrate body
    • cells
    • tissues
    • organs
    • organ systems
  2. Image Upload 1
    diagram of organization of vertebrate body
  3. Dorsal Body cavity
    forms within skull and vertebrae
  4. Ventral body cavity
    bounded by the rib cage and the vertebral column
  5. diaphragm divides the ventral body cavity in to what two cavities?
    • Thoracic cavity
    • Abdominopelvic cavity
  6. Thoracic cavity
    • located anteriorly in the ventral body cavity
    • contains the heart and lungs
  7. Abdominopelvic cavity
    • located posteriorly in the ventral body cavity
    • contains most organs
  8. what 3 sub cavities are found in the abdominopelvic cavity?
    • peritoneal cavity- coelomic space
    • pericardial cavity- around the heart
    • pleural cavity- around the lungs
  9. Tissues
    Groups of cells similar in structure and function are organized into ______
  10. what are the 3 germ layers (from inner most to outer) ?
    • endoderm- inner
    • mesoderm
    • ectoderm- outer
  11. how many primary tissues do adult verterbrates have and what are they?
    • four:
    • epithelial
    • connective
    • muscle
    • nerve
  12. Epithelium (epithelial tissue)
    • covers every major surface of the vertebrate body
    • derived from all three germ layers
    • provides a barrier to facilitate/impede substances
    • remarkable regenerative powers
  13. epithelial tissue attach to underlying connective tissues. what are the terms for the two "sides" of the attached tissue?
    • Basal surface- secured side (attached to basement membrane)
    • Apical surface- free side
  14. What are the two designations of epithelial tissue based on layers?
    • simple- one layer thick
    • stratified- several cell layers thick
  15. what are the types of epithelial tissue designations based on shape?
    • squamous- shaped like tile on floor
    • cuboidal- shaped like dice ; cube
    • columnar- like a brick on end
  16. stratified epithelial tissue is named according to feature of which layer?
    top / uppermost layer
  17. Image Upload 2
    types of epithelial tissue and their names diagram
  18. exocrine glands
    connection between the gland and the epithelial membrane is maintained as a duct. secretes to the outside. ex: sweat, saliva
  19. endocrine glands
    • ductless glands- connections with the epithelium, from which they are derived, are lost during development.
    • secrete hormones
  20. what kind of tissue is the epidermis?
    (layer, shape, etc)
    keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
  21. explain "kerantinized"
    contains water- resistant keratin
  22. definition of "Connective tissue"
    sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix
  23. matrix
    non-living; fibers embedded in homogenous ground substance.
  24. characteristics of connective tissue
    • sparse population of cells scattered through an extra cellular matrix
    • derive from embryonic mesoderm
    • divided into two major classes
  25. what are the two major classes of connective tissue?
    • connective tissue proper
    • special connective tissue
  26. what are the two types of connective tissue proper?
    • loose
    • dense
  27. what are the three types of special connective tissue?
    • cartilage
    • bone
    • blood
  28. explain why blood is considered a special connective tissue
    definition of "Connective tissue"- platelets, lucacytes, etc all in plasma.
  29. Fibroblasts
    produce and secrete extracellular matrix
  30. characteristics of loose connective tissue
    • cells scattered within amorphous mass of proteins that form a ground substance
    • strengthened by protein fibers
    • example: adipose cells found in loose connective tissue
  31. what kind of protein fibers strengthen loose connective tissue?
    • collagen- strength
    • elastin- elasticity
    • reticulin- strength
  32. what are the two types of dense connective tissue and what are their characteristics?
    • regular- collagen fibers lined up in parallel; example: tendons and ligaments
    • irregular- collagen fibers have many orientations; non parallel
  33. What are 4 types of dense irregular tissue?
    • organ coverings- capsules
    • muscle coverings- epimysium
    • nerve coverings- perineurium
    • bone coverings- periosteum
  34. What is "cartilage" ?
    • specialized connective tissue in which fibers are laid down along the line of stress in long parallel arrays
    • firm and flexible; ex: nose and ears
  35. Chondrocytes
    immature cartilage cells that live within spaces (lacunae) within cartilage matrix
  36. Chondroblasts
    make cartilage
  37. bone as a special connective tissue
    many bones are first modeled as cartilage that then calcifies, thus chondrocytes are no longer able to obtain nutrients
  38. osteoblasts
    • forms new bone
    • secrete collagen organic matrix in which calcium phosphate is later deposited.
  39. lacunae
    spaces where cells are encased in calcified bone matrix
  40. lamellae
    concentric circles that are laid down around Haversian canals to construct bone
  41. Haversian canals / systems
    • packed together to form bone.
    • contain nerve fibers and blood vessels
    • osteocytes get nutrients from them
  42. Image Upload 3
    bone cross section
  43. name types of cells found in blood
    • Thrombocytes- platelets
    • erythrocytes- contain hemoglobin
    • leukocytes- have nuceli and mitochondria, but lack hemoglobin
    • neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
    • lymphocytes and monocytes
  44. what are the tree types of muscle tissue?
    • smooth
    • skeletal
    • cardiac
  45. what muscle tissues are striated?
    • (striated  transverse stripes)
    • skeletal
    • cardiac
  46. which muscle fibers are under voluntary control and which are involuntary?
    • contraction of skeletal muscle is under voluntary control
    • cardiac and smooth muscle is generally involuntary.
  47. smooth muscle
    found in organs of internal environment (viscera)
  48. skeletal muscle
    • usually attached to tendons or bones, so when muscles contract causes bones to move at the joints
    • made up of long muscle "fibers" (multi nucleated cells)
    • made up of highly ordered arrays of actin and myosin fibers
  49. cardiac muscles
    • composed of smaller, interconnected cells, each with a single nucleus
    • interconnection appear as dark lines called intercalated disks
  50. intercalated disks
    • gap junction in cardiac muscles
    • electrical potential can move from one cell to another
    • enable cardiac muscles to form single functioning unit- myocardium
  51. nerve tissue
    cells include neurons and neuroglia
  52. 3 parts of neurons
    • cell body- contains the nucleus
    • dendrites- highly branched extensions
    • axon-single cytoplasmic extension
  53. what does the cell body contain?
    the nucleus
  54. what is a dendrite and what is its function
    highly branched extensions of neuron. It receives information and conducts electrical impulses toward the cell body
  55. what is an axon and what is its function?
    single cytoplasmic extension of neuron. Conducts impulses away from cell body (to another place)
  56. what do neuroglia do?
    support and insulate neurons and eliminate foreign materials in and around neurons
  57. what is a myelin sheath?
    insulating covering of neuroglia cells wrapped around axons
  58. what are the nodes of Ranvier
    separate adjacent neuroglia myelin sheath cells.
  59. two divisions of the nervous system
    • central nervous system- includes the brain and spinal cord
    • peripheral nervous system- includes nerves and ganglia
  60. What are the three organ systems that detect external stimuli and coordinate the body's responses?
    Nervous, sensory, and endocrine systems
  61. which organ system involves support and movement?
    musculoskeletal system- consists of two interrelated organ systems
  62. Which four organ systems regulate and maintain the body's chemistry
    digestive, circulatory, respiratory, and urinary systems
  63. Which two organ systems are involved in defense?
    • integumentary- skin
    • immune
  64. The biological continuity of vertebrates is the province of the _____ _____
    reproductive system
  65. The dynamic constancy of the internal environment is called _____
  66. To maintain internal constancy, the vertebrate body uses ____ _____ mechanisms
    negative feedback
  67. what to sensors do to maintain homeostasis
    sensors (cells or membrane receptors) detect changing conditions
  68. where does the information picked up by sensors in homeostasis go?
    Information is fed to an integrating center, also called a comparator. the comparator compares conditions to a set point
  69. If a deviation in homeostasis is detected, a message is sent to an _____
  70. endothermic
    produce heat from within
  71. antagonistic effectors
    have a "push-pull relationship"
  72. positive feedback
    • mechanisms that enhance or continuate
    • change. ex: blood clotting, contractions
  73. Q10
    the ratio of the reaction rates at two temperatures that differ by 10 C
  74. Body heat =
    heat produces +heat transferred
  75. 4 methods of heat transfer
    • radiation- by electromagnetic radiation
    • conduction-directly between two objects
    • convection- by the movement of gas or liquid
    • evaporation-conversion of water to gas
  76. homeotherms
    regulate their body temperature about a set point. Also called "warm-blooded"
  77. Poikilotherms
    allow their body temperature to conform to the environment. Also called "cold-blooded"
  78. Endotherms
    Use metabolism to generate body heat and maintain temperature above ambient temperature. (same as homeotherms)
  79. Ectotherms
    Do not use metabolism to produce heat and have body temperature that conforms to ambient temperature (same as Poikilotherms)
  80. Heterotherm
    falls between Endotherm and Ectotherm
  81. countercurrent heat exchange
    warm blood pumped from within the body in arteries warms the cooler blood returning from the outer skin in veins
  82. Vasodilation
    increases blood flow, thereby increasing heat dissipation
  83. Vasoconstriction
    • decreases blood flow, thus limiting heat loss
    • ex:fingers get cold
  84. which size animal has higher metabolic rates per unit body mass?
    smaller animals: small endotherms in cold environments require significant insulation to maintain their body temperature.
  85. thermogenesis
    • use of normal energy metabolism to produce heat
    • shivering thermogenesis- using muscles to produce heat
    • nonshivering thermogenesis- alters fat metabolism
  86. heat losing center
    located in the hypothalamus
  87. heat promoting center
    in the hypothalamus; stimulated by a drop in body temperature
  88. pyrogens
    substances that cause a fever
  89. torpor
    a state of dormancy produced by a reduction in both metabolic rate and body temperature
  90. Hibernation
    an extreme state in which torpor lasts for weeks or months
Card Set
biology terms
Show Answers