1. Non-anesthetized parameters
    • Systolic: 91-110
    • Diastolic: 51-65
    • MAP: 66-81
  2. Anesthetized parameters
    • Systolic: 79-97
    • Diastolic: 37-49
    • MAP: 53-70
  3. valves with 3 cusps
    • tricuspid
    • pulmonary
    • aortic
  4. valves with 2 cusps
  5. "hardware disease"
    traumatic reticular pericarditis
  6. cardiac tamponade
    • fluid buildup between visceral pericardium and parietal pericardium
    • prevents heart from expanding/contracting normally
    • tachycardia, hypoxia, syncope, death
  7. endocarditis
    inflammation of SQE lining and valvular endocarditis
  8. rheumatic fever
    • inflammation of heart valves producing insufficiencies
    • streptococci
  9. Erysipelas
    • endocarditis
    • etiology: Erysipelothrix rhusioperthiae
    • diamond shaped skin lesions, arthritis w/ lameness
    • pigs and turkeys
  10. chordae tendinae
    thread-like cords that connect atrioventricular valves to papillary muscles in ventricles
  11. LUB
    • AV valves close
    • contraction of ventricles
    • systolic
  12. dub
    • semilunar valves close
    • contraction of pulmonary artery and aorta
    • diastole
  13. Caval syndrome
    • actue manifestation of HW in R side of heart
    • R heart side failure
  14. Left side heart failure
    • mitral valve insufficiency
    • pulmonary edema
    • given Enacard to reduce blood vol
  15. Where are valves found?
    • veins
    • heart
    • lymphatics

    placed at irregular intervals to direct blood in one direction (preventing back flow through valve closure)
  16. movement in one direction
  17. administer for irregular contractions of atria/ventricles
    Lidocaine without Epinephrine
  18. Systole
    • Contraction
    • Depolarization
  19. Diastole
    • Relaxation
    • Repolarization
  20. Depolarization
  21. Repolarization
  22. steps in conduction in the heart
    • SA node
    • Internodal pathways
    • AV node
    • AV bundle (syncytium)
    • Bundle of His
    • Purkinje Fibers
  23. syncytium
    fibrous ring acts as an insulator between the two syncytia (atrial, ventricular) so that an impulse that spreads through the atria does not spread to the ventricles, and visa versa
  24. pressure originating from RV, circulating to lungs, etc
    pulmonary circulation
  25. pressure originating from LV, blood that has returned from lungs, goes to all areas of body
    systemic circulation
  26. examples of portal systems
    • renal portal system
    • hepatic portal system
    • hypophyseal portal system
  27. blood flow through hepatic portal system
    portal vein> liver> sinusoids in liver lobule filter> hepatic vein> caudal vena cava
  28. macrophages in CNS
    microglial cells
  29. macrophages in loose connective tissue
  30. where are lymphocytes found?
    • spleen
    • thymus
    • lymph nodes
    • lymph tissue
  31. lymph nodes to palpate in dog
    • mandibular
    • parotid
    • axillary (superficial)
    • inguinal (medial femoral)
    • popliteal
  32. largest lymphoid organ
  33. white pulp vs. red pulp of the spleen
    • white- lymphocyte production
    • red- lymphocyte filtration
  34. P Wave
    depolarization (systole/contraction) of atria
  35. QRS Complex
    • repolarization (diastole/relaxation) of atria
    • depolarization (systole/contraction) of ventricles
  36. T Wave
    repolarization (diastole/relaxation) of ventricles
  37. incisura
    • closure of aortic valve preceded by sharp dip in aortic pressure
    • immediately followed by secondary rise
    • indicates end of ventricular systole(contraction)/beginning of ventricular diastole(relaxation)
  38. what two factors determine cardiac output?
    • stroke vol
    • heart rate
  39. what does cardiac output represent?
    vol of blood that flows from either L or R ventricle
  40. total cardiac output
    sum of vol of blood ejected from BOTH ventricles
  41. starling's law
    heart rate can increase and stroke vol decrease and still result in high cardiac output-up to a point-Starling's Law- then cardiac output will decrease
  42. 3 stages of shock
    • compensatory
    • progressive
    • irreversible
  43. how are heart reflexes related to BP?
    stretch receptors in aortic arch and carotid sinus respond to increase/decrease BP
  44. impulses from the aortic arch are transmitted via the __________ to the ___________
    • vagus nerve (10)
    • medulla-pons (cardioinhibitor&vasomotor centers)

    • directed toward lowering BP
    • increases parasympathetic stimulation to the heart thus decreasing its activity, dilation of the systemic blood vessels
  45. impulses from the carotid sinus are transmitted via the ________to the ___________
    • glossopharyngeal (9)
    • medulla-pons (cardioinhibitor&vasomotor centers)

    • directed toward lowering BP
    • increases parasympathetic stimulation to the heart thus decreasing its activity, dilation of systemic blood vessels
  46. what is done first in SX if BP is low?
    increase surgery drip to shock drip
  47. Brainbridge reflex
    receptors in the R. atrium are stimulated by stretc (or lack of stretch), such as during exercise when greater amounts of blood are returned to the heart

    stretch receptors transmit their impulse through the vagus (10) to medulla of the brain

    designed to increase all activities of the heart/circulatory effects
  48. Pulse Pressure
    PP= S - D
  49. Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)
    MAP= D + 1/3 PP
  50. indirect/non-invasive ways to measure BP
    • Doppler
    • Oscillometric
  51. what does the Doppler measure?
    Systolic ONLY!!!
  52. disadvantages of using the Doppler
    • does not give diastolic, therefore:
    • PP cannot be determined
    • MAP cannot be determined
    • true hypo/hypertension cannot be determined
  53. 3 factors that can influence BP readings
    • anxiety
    • movement
    • improper cuff size
  54. ways to minimize the "white coat" effect
    • time to acclimate
    • quiet area
    • owner participation
    • minimal restraint
  55. hallmark of shock
  56. types of shock
    • hypovolemic
    • cardiovascular
    • neurogenic
    • septic
    • anaphylactic
  57. what are things we administer that could cause shock?
    • anesthesics
    • cardiac meds (vasodilators=lowering of BP)
  58. causes of hypotension
    • shock
    • sepsis
    • administration of various meds (anesthetics, cardiac)
  59. clinical manifestations of hypotension
    • cool extremities
    • prolonged CRT
    • diminished consciousness
    • little-no urine output
  60. most common complication of anesthesia
  61. hypertension values
    • dog: 180/100
    • cat: 200/120
  62. classifications of hypertension
    • primary- idiopathic
    • secondary- disease is the cause
  63. causes of secondary hypertension
    • cushing's disease
    • hyperthyroidism
    • diabetes mellitus
    • renal disease
  64. autoregulation
    when oxygen is reduced in concentration, blood vessels dilate allowing more blood to flow so oxygen is replenished 
  65. non-anesthetized BPs
    • systolic: 91-110
    • diastolic: 51-65
    • MAP: 66-81
  66. anesthetized BPs
    • systolic: 79-97
    • diastolic: 37-49
    • MAP: 53-70
  67. lipid soluble materials
    • oxygen
    • carbon dioxide
  68. lipid-insoluble materials
    • glucose
    • urea
    • crystalloids
    • electrolytes
  69. very large, lipid-insoluble materials
    • protein molecules
    • antibiotics
    • colloids
  70. normal capillary pressure
    17 mmHg
  71. pressure of arterioles
    25 mmHg
  72. pressure of venules
    10 mmHg
  73. Patent Ductus Arteriosis (PDA)
    opening between pulmonary artery and aorta that fails to close in newborn
  74. How many types of DEA are there?
  75. most common types of DEA
  76. least common type of DEA
  77. most reactive types DEA
  78. blood types of the cat
    • A (most common and dangerous)
    • B (ideal donor)
    • AB (universal recipient)
  79. reasons to avoid transfusions
    • risk of sensitization and subsequent severe reactions
    • transfused RBCs have shortened life span
  80. another name for epicardium
    visceral pericardium
  81. layers of the heart (closest to the heart, going outwards)
    • heart
    • endocardium
    • myocardium
    • epicardium (visceral pericardium)
    • pericardial space (potential space) *fluid*
    • parietal pericardium (serous pericardium)
    • fibrous parietal layer
  82. why is blood typing of more clinical importance in cats than dogs?
    existence of strong preformed isoantibodies
  83. muscular part of the heart
  84. pacemaker of the heart
    SA Node

    the stimulus for contraction/contraction frequency of the atria and ventricles
  85. prevents eversion of cusps into the atrium
    chordae tendinae
  86. LaPlaces Law
    Pressure equals the tension developed in the ventricle wall from contraction of the cardiac muscle, divided by the sum of the two radii of curvature (in cm)

    P= T/ R1 + R2
  87. myocardial oxygen consumption under normal contraction in the heart
    9 mL per min/100 grams
  88. electrocardiogram
    wave form recording obtained
  89. electrocardiography
    process for recording
  90. waves on electrocardiogram commence from this common line
    isoelectric line
  91. possible cause of QRS complex increase
    hypertrophy of ventricular muscle
  92. amplitude of cardiogram measured in 

    interval between waves in milliseconds
  93. possible cause of S-T segment depression
    hypoxia (lack of oxygen)
  94. highest point of arterial pressure obtained at:
    peak of LV systole (contraction)

    "Systolic BP"
  95. lowest pressure in arteries occurs while:
    LV is in diastole (relaxed)

    "Diastolic BP"
  96. veins alligator forceps travel through for caval syndrome
    • R. external jugular vein
    • R. brachiocephalic vein
    • cranial vena cava
    • R. auricle...
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