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  1. radiation protection:
    the use of effective measure by radiation workers to safeguard patients personnel and the general public from unnecessary exposure to ionizing radiation
  2. does radiation protection add to diagnostic information obtained or enhance the quality of the study
  3. what is diagnosed
    the degree to which diagnostic study accurately reveals the presence or absence of disease
  4. what is bert
    • background equivalent radiation time
    • compares amount of radiation with natural background radiation over a period of time
  5. what is trace (acronym)
    tools for radiation awareness and community education
  6. what are the main components of the trace
    • technological advances like embedded software that records dose and reports it
    • timely notification when dose is greater than 3gy
  7. what are the benefits of standardized dose reporting
    • can lead to reduction in dose
    • large variability in radiation does still exists
    • new equipment
  8. what is radiation
    energy in transit from one location to another
  9. electromagnetic spectrum:
    electric and magnetic fields fluctuate rapidly as they travel through space
  10. what rays does particulate radiation include
    beta alpha particles protons neutrons
  11. how many protons and neutrons are in a alpha ray and what is its charge and size
    • 2pro 2 neutrons
    • large in size
    • positive charge
  12. where are alpha particles emitted from
    nuclei of very heavy elements such a uranium and plutonium as a process of radioactive decay
  13. what particle or ray loses energy quickly and can only travel short distances in biological matter
    alpha particles
  14. when are alpha particles considered harmless and dangerous
    • harmless when they act as an external source
    • dangerous when they are from an internal source emitted from a radioisotope deposited in the body
  15. how many times lighter are beta rays than alpha rays
  16. what is the size and charge of the beta particle
    small mass and negative charge
  17. what particle can penetrate more alpha or beta
    beta particles and with less ionization
  18. what is a proton and neutron
    protons are positively charged components of an atom. the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom constitutes its atomic number

    neutrons are the electrically neutral components of an atom.
  19. what is an isotope
    when two atoms have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons in their nuclei they are referred to as isotopes
  20. what is radiation dose based on
    equivalent dose only applies to what?
    amount of energy transferred to electrons by ionizing radiation

    ionizing radiation
  21. what is equivalent dose
    a quantity that attempts to take into account the variation in biological harm produced by different types of radiation
  22. what is the effective dose
    takes into account dose for all types of ionizing radiation to organs tissues and the overall harm (weighing factor) for developing radiation induced cancer or genetic damage
  23. what factor is equivalent dose expressed in
    1 sievert =
    • sievert or rem
    • 100 rem
  24. how does ionizing radiation cause biological damage
    by ejecting electrons from the atoms within tissues
  25. excessive cellular damage can lead to ____
    genetic or somatic changes
  26. destruction at the molecular level can lead to ____
    cellular damage
  27. what is the largest contributor of natural radiation
  28. what happens when you inhale heavy radioactive gas
    once inhaled it produces daughter radioactive isotopes that injure lung tissue
  29. how much radon is emitted every year
    1.98 mSv/year
  30. what is an example of terrestrial radiation
  31. what is an example of extraterrestrial radiation
    what is the average equivalent dose
    • cosmic radiation
    • intensifies with altitude; atmosphere and magnetic field acts as a shield
    • 0.3mSv
  32. what is internal radiation
    list some examples
    • naturally existing radiation in the body due to ingestion or inhalation
    • K+-40
    • carbon-14
    • hydrogen-3
    • strontium-90
  33. what is manmade (artificial) radiation
    • air travel
    • consumer products
    • nuclear fuel
    • medical radiation
    • nuc weapons and bombs
  34. what are the two largest sources of manmade radiation
    medical xray and nuclear medicine
  35. if a person spends 10 hours flying aboard a commercial aircraft during a period of normal sunspot activity the dose of radiaition received is equivalent to _____
    a chest xray
  36. what is one thing that BERT does not do or nit an advantage of
    Bert does not imply exact radiation risk
  37. what is the bert for a chest radiograph
    10 days
  38. the NCRP report 93 from 2006 states that the main cause associated with the new annual background radiation dose is the increased in what studies
    CT studies
  39. State one example of how occupational radiation exposure of imaging personnel could be minimized
    reduce the time spent when in a room during certain exams like fluoro
  40. in the electromagnetic spectrum higher frequencies are associated with what wavelengths and energies:
    shorter wavelengths and higher energies
  41. what reason is not true concerning alpha particles
    alpha particles are highly penetrable which is false
  42. List one statement that is not true about a component of the TRACE program
    a cut off of radiation after 3Gy
  43. which principle can be used to answer a patients a questions regarding the amount of radiation reeived
  44. T OR F
    Sievert and rem are the units of equivalent dose and effective dose
  45. the NCRP report No 93 states that medical use (nuclear Medicine.CT Fluoro interventional and conventional radiography) now makes up ____ % of total collective dose for the population of the united states
  46. T or F
    according to NCRP Report No 160 the majority of natural background radiation exposure comes from exposure to consumer products
  47. The CURRENT annual ionizing radiation exposure from both manmade and natural sources to the population of the united states is ______ mrem
    625 or 6.25 msv
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