The flashcards below were created by user tracyc87 on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Cells
    the basic biological unit of living organisms, containing a nucleus and a variety of organelles enclosed by a limiting membrane
  2. Generalized cell
    Generalized cells are round or spherical in shape and perform basic life functions. Cheek cells are generalized cells. They are flat, basically round, and protect the inside lining of the mouth.
  3. nucleus
    a dense central body in most cells containing the genetic material of the cell
  4. Nuclear envelope/ nuclear membrane
    The double-layered membrane enclosing the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. The nuclear envelope has pores that allow the passage of materials into and out of the nucleus.
  5. nuclear pores
    An octagonal opening where the inner and outer membranes of the nuclear envelope are continuous.
  6. nucleoli
    any one of the small, dense structures composed largely of ribonucleic acid that are situated within the cytoplasm of cells. Nucleoli are essential in the formation of ribosomes that synthesize cell proteins.
  7. chromatin
    A complex of nucleic acids and proteins in the cell nucleus that stains readily with basic dyes and condenses to form chromosomes during cell division.
  8. chomosomes
    barlike body of tightly coiled chromatin; visible during cell division
  9. plasma membrane
    membrane that encloses cell contents; outer limiting membrane
  10. microvilli
    the tiny projections on the free surfaces of some epithelial cells' increase surface area of absorbtion
  11. tight junctions
    an intercellular junction at which adjacent plasma membranes are joined tightly together by interlinked rows of integral membrane proteins, limiting or eliminating the intercellular passage of molecules.
  12. desmosomes
    tight intercellular junctions formed by apposed areas of thickened cell membrane; intermediate filaments of one cell link with those of an adjacent cell
  13. gap junction
    regions of high and special ionic permeability between closely apposed cells. They are places at which cells exchange molecules of large size and provide an avenue by which developing cells can influence each other. Called also nexus.
  14. connexons
    the functional unit of a gap junction; the hexagonal array of membrane-spanning proteins around a central channel that connects with its counterpart in an adjacent cell to form the intercellular pore of the gap junction.
  15. cytoplasm
    the substance of a cell other than that of the nucleus
  16. cell junction
    an epithelial cell is shown joined to adjacent cells by the three common types of cell junctions; tight, desmosomes, and gap.
  17. cytosol
    The fluid component of cytoplasm, excluding organelles and the insoluble, usually suspended, cytoplasmic components.
  18. organelles
    specialized structures in a cell that perform specific metabolic functions
  19. inclusions
    a usually lifeless, often temporary, constituent in the cytoplasm of a cell.
  20. mitochondria
    the rodlike cytoplasmic organelles responsible for ATP generation
  21. ribosomes
    cytoplasmic organelles at which proteins are synthesized
  22. endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
    a membranous network of tubular or saclike channels in the cytoplasm of a cell
  23. rough ER
    a small network, especially a protoplasmic network in cells.
  24. transport vesicles
    is a protein which serves the function of moving other materials within an organism. Transport proteins are vital to the growth and life of all living things.
  25. smooth ER
    a smooth network without the ribosomes.
  26. golgi apparatus
    is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells
  27. secretory vesicles
    the cellular process of elaborating and releasing a specific product; this activity may range from separating a specific substance of the blood to the elaboration of a new chemical substance.
  28. lysosomes
    organelles that originate from the golgi apparatus and contain strong digestive enzymes
  29. peroxisomes
    any of the microbodies present in vertebrate animal cells, especially liver and kidney cells, which are rich in the enzymes peroxidase, catalase, d-amino acid oxidase, and, to a lesser extent, urate oxidase.
  30. free radicals
    compounds with an unpaired electron, which makes them extremely reactive.
  31. cytoskeleton
    a conspicuous internal reinforcement in the cytoplasm of a cell, consisting of tonofibrils, filaments of the terminal web, and other microfilaments
  32. intermediate filaments
    a substance formed in a chemical process that is essential to formation of the end-product of the process.
  33. microfilaments
    any of the submicroscopic filaments composed chiefly of actin, found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells, often with the microtubules.
  34. microtubules
    Slender, elongated anatomical channels in worms
  35. centriole
    a minute body found near the nucleus of the cell composed of microtubules; active in cell division
  36. cilia
    tiny, hairlike projections on cell surfaces that move in a wave like manner
  37. flagella
    long whiplike extensions of the cell membrane of some bacteria and sperm, serve to propel the cell
  38. solution
    a homogenous mixture of two or more components
  39. solvent
    the substance present in the largest amount in a solution; or dissolving medium
  40. solutes
    the dissolved substance in a solution
  41. intracellular fluid
    the portion of the total body water with its dissolved solutes which are within the cell membranes.
  42. interstitial fluid
    fluid between the cells
  43. selective permeability
    a barrier allows some substances to pass through it while excluding others
  44. passive transport
    membrane transport processes that do not require cellular energy ATP; eg., difusion, which is driven by kinetic energy.
  45. active transport
    net movement of a substance across a membrane against a concentration or electrical gradient; requires release and use of cellular energy.
  46. diffusion
    the spreading of particles in a gas or solution with a movement towards uniform distribution of particles
  47. concentration gradient
    a difference in the concentration of a substance on two sides of a permeable barrier
  48. simple diffusion
    the unassisted diffusion of solutes through the plasma membrane (or any selectively permeable membrane)
  49. osmosis
    the diffusion of a solvent through a membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated one.
  50. facilitated diffusion
    provides passage for certain needed substances that are both lipid-insoluble and too large to pass through the membrane pores
  51. filtration
    the passage of a solvent and dissolved substances through a membrane or filter
  52. pressure gradient
    difference in hydrostatic (fluid) pressure that drives filtration
  53. active transport
    net movement of a substance across a membrane against a concentration or electrical gradient; requires release and use of cellular energy
  54. solute pumps
    active transports that use ATP to energize its protein carriers
  55. vesicular transport
    moves substances into or out of cells without their actually crossing the plasma membrane
  56. exocytosis
    the discharge from a cell of particles that are too large to diffuse through the wall; the opposite of endocytosis
  57. endocytosis
    the uptake by a cell of material from the environment by invagination of its plasma membrane; it includes both phagocytosis and pinocytosis.
  58. phagocytosis
    the ingestion of solid particles by cells
  59. pinocytosis
    the engulfing of extracellular fluid by cells
  60. receptor-mediated endocytosis
    the main cellular mechanism for taking up specific target molecules
  61. cell life cycle
    the series of changes a cell goes through from the time it is formed until it divides.
  62. interphase
    the cell grows and carries on its usual metabolic activities
  63. cell division
    during which the cell reproduces with itself
  64. mitosis
    division of the nucleous
  65. cytokinesis
    the division of the cytoplasm
  66. prophase
    the first stage in cell reduplication in either meiosis or mitosis
  67. chromatid
    either of two parallel, spiral filaments joined at the centromere which make up a chromosome.
  68. centromere
    small button like body
  69. mitotic spindle
    composed of microtubules
  70. metaphase
    the second stage of cell division (mitosis or meiosis), in which the chromosomes, each consisting of two chromatids, are arranged in the equatorial plane of the spindle prior to separation.
  71. anaphase
    the third stage of division of the nucleus in either meiosis or mitosis.
  72. telephase
    the last of the four stages of mitosis and of the two divisions of meiosis, in which the chromosomes arrive at the poles of the cell and the cytoplasm divides; in plants, the cell wall also forms.
  73. cleavage furrow
    the indentation of the cell's surface that begins the progression of cleavage, by which animal and some algal cells undergo cytokinesis, the final splitting of the membrane, in the process cell division.
  74. gene
    biological units of heredity located in chromatin; transmits hereditary information
  75. enzymes
    a substance formed by living ells that act as catalyst in bodily chemical reactions
  76. RNA (ribonuleic acid)
    the nucleic acid that contains ribose; acts in protein synthesis
  77. transfer RNA molecules
    small cloverleaf-shaped molecules
  78. rRNA
    helps form the ribosome, where proteins are built
  79. messenger RNA molecule (mRNA)
    are long, single nucleotide strands that resemble half of a DNA molecule and carry the message containing instructions for protein synthesis from the DNA gene in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
  80. transcriptions
    the synthesis of RNA using a DNA template catalyzed by RNA polymerase; the base sequences of the RNA and DNA are complementary.
  81. triplet
Card Set
chapter 3
Show Answers